Species: Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni)
Status: Endangered (EN)
Interesting Fact: The male Banggai cardinalfish broods its eggs and young inside a special pouch in its mouth, and does not eat during this period.
Its striking colouration and long, elegant fins have made the Banggai cardinalfish hugely popular in the aquarium trade. This species is unusual for a marine fish in the extreme levels of genetic diversity between its populations, caused by its very limited ability to move between different areas. The Banggai cardinalfish also lays relatively few eggs compared to other marine fish, and the eggs hatch after being brooded inside the male’s mouth for about 20 days. The young then continue to develop inside the male’s mouth for a further ten days before being released. The Banggai cardinalfish lives in shallow, tropical coastal waters around coral reefs or seagrass beds, and feeds on planktonic crustaceans.
The Banggai cardinalfish is found only at certain sites around islands in the Banggai Archipelago in Indonesia, and is under serious threat from over-collection for the aquarium trade. Many individuals die during transport, and many more are rejected due to being in poor condition. Habitat destruction and the illegal use of dynamite and cyanide in fishing for other species is also a threat to this small fish. A successful captive breeding programme has now been developed for the Banggai cardinalfish, although a proposal to regulate trade in this fish under CITES was rejected due to a conflict of interest. Fortunately, the Banggai Conservation Project is now working to protect the Banggai cardinalfish and its habitat.
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Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author