Species: Lemur leaf frog (Hylomantis lemur)
Status: Critically Endangered (CR)
Interesting Fact: The lemur leaf frog has the remarkable ability to change colour depending on whether it is active or resting.
More information: The lemur leaf frog is a tiny, highly threatened amphibian from Central America. This species is primarily nocturnal, and spends the day well hidden on leaves. During the day, this frog is a vibrant leaf-green colour, changing to red-brown when it is active. At night, the lemur leaf frog walks stealthily among low vegetation in search of its invertebrate prey. This species breeds during the rainy season, and the female lays between 15 and 30 eggs on leaves that hang over water. After the eggs have hatched, the larvae are washed into the watercourse during heavy rain. This Critically Endangered amphibian is currently found in Costa Rica and Panama, and marginally in Colombia. In Costa Rica this frog is only known from three sites.
The lemur leaf frog has undergone a drastic population decline, estimated to be more than 80 percent loss over a 10 year period. While pigments in the skin of the lemur leaf frog are thought to grant it some resistance, the decline of this species is thought to be due to chytridiomycosis, a disease that is responsible for global amphibian population crashes. This frog is also threatened by deforestation, especially in Costa Rica.
In Panama, this species is known to exist within at least six protected areas, whereas the habitats of the Costa Rican populations remain unprotected. A captive breeding programme began in 2001 at the Atlanta Botanical Garden, which has been highly successful and has since transferred individuals to other zoos to continue the effort. Other breeding programmes exist at the El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center in Panama, and the Manchester Museum in the United Kingdom.
Find out more about the lemur leaf frog and other species of South America
See images of the lemur leaf frog on ARKive
Find out more about amphibian conservation
Ben Hogan, Wildscreen ARKive PIPS Intern