Species: Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)
Status: Endangered (EN)
Interesting Fact: The Atlantic bluefin tuna can swim at speeds of up to 72 kilometres per hour when pursuing its prey.
More information: The enormous Atlantic bluefin tuna can grow to lengths of 4.6 metres and weigh up to 684 kilograms. This fish species has two types of muscle, one for continuous long-distance swimming and the other for short, fast bursts of speed. This amazing adaptation means that individuals of this species are able to swim across the Atlantic Ocean in just 60 days. Although the Atlantic bluefin tuna is generally found swimming in mixed species schools close to the surface of the water, it is capable of diving to depths of up to 1,000 metres when chasing prey. Another fascinating adaptation of the Thunnus genus is the blood exchange system known as the rete mirable which enables individuals to swim in water that is much to cold for other fish. The Atlantic bluefin tuna is a highly migratory species and has a naturally occurring magnetic mineral located in its head that helps with navigation to and from its spawning grounds.
The severe exploitation of the Atlantic bluefin tuna has led to the drastic decline of every known population, particularly in the North Atlantic Ocean. Despite quotas being in place to ensure sustainable numbers are removed from the population, the limits are frequently not respected and unless the legal levels are suitably enforced, it is predicted that some Atlantic bluefin tuna stocks will collapse. The western Atlantic stock may have already collapsed and is now in grave danger of extinction due to overfishing. In the Mediterranean, tuna ranching poses the greatest threat to this species. Individuals are captured alive and taken to a ranch where they are fattened before being sold. Since 1998, catch limits have been in place and in 2006 the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) established a 15 year recovery plan for the Atlantic bluefin tuna. The plan includes stricter catch limits and closing certain fisheries at specific times of the year to allow the local stocks to recover.
Find out more about Atlantic tuna conservation: International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT).
See images and videos of the Atlantic bluefin tuna on ARKive.
Hannah Mulvany, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer.