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Here at Arkive, we provide the ultimate multimedia guide to endangered species, and through our blog we’ll keep you up to date with news from the world of wildlife videos, photography and conservation, alongside the latest on our quest to locate imagery of the planet’s most wanted plants and animals.
Jul 17

Plans for a new opencast mine near South Africa’s Hluhluwe-Imfolozi reserve may increase pollution and poaching in the area, which would lead to further reductions in the size of the local southern white rhinoceros population. 

Among the most charismatic and recognisable of Africa’s mega-fauna, the white rhinoceros is the largest of the five rhinoceros species and one of the world’s biggest land animals, second only to the African and Asian elephant in size. A subspecies of white rhinoceros, the southern white rhinoceros, is currently the most numerous of all the world’s rhinos, and 93 percent of the total population is thought to occur in South Africa. This subspecies was rescued from near extinction a century ago, and represents a real conservation success story. In 1895, only around 50 individuals remained but careful conservation has increased this number to the 20,000 individuals that exist today. However, threats to the southern white rhinoceros are on the increase, and news of a proposed mining operation in close proximity to one of the most important nature reserve for this, and many other, species may spell disaster for this iconic animal.

The Near Threatened southern white rhinoceros is currently the most populous of the world’s rhinoceros species

The Hluhluwe-Imfolozi Park in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa is the oldest nature reserve in Africa and was established in 1895, largely to protect the remaining population of the southern white rhinoceros. Situated at the confluence of the Black and White Umfolozi Rivers, this natural reserve is home to Africa’s ‘big five’, as well as innumerable other iconic species and over 340 bird species. There are fears that opencast coal mining in close proximity to the park may pollute the air and rivers, displace local communities, and threaten the southern white rhinoceros. Local communities’ fears are founded in experience, they say that drilling and blasting at the Somkhele coal mine, six miles away, already creates pollution and affects livestock. There are concerns that not only will the toxic dust from the new mine affect the local wildlife, but the influx of people is also likely to increase the accessibility of the park to poachers.

The African leopard is also found in the Hluhluwe-Imfolozi Park

Poaching is an increasing threat to all rhinoceros species. Just 13 rhinoceros were killed in 2007, while recent figures show that over 500 have been killed so far in 2014, indicating the highest level of poaching since records began. The growing demand for rhinoceros horn is thought to be due to economic growth and increased disposable income in Southeast Asia and China, where the horn is used for traditional medicine and as a sign of prestige among the business elite. The price of rhinoceros horn is greater than that of gold, and poachers are becoming increasingly organised, and there have been many reports of helicopters and high-tech gadgetry being used in poaching attempts. It is thought that the mine could help to facilitate poaching, and increase the difficulty of policing the park. The response to the plans from local communities and conservationists worldwide has been one of concern and consternation.

The horn of the white rhinoceros is becoming a more valuable target for poachers due to increasing demand from Asia

Find out more about the white rhinoceros on Arkive.

Discover more South African species on Arkive.

Read more on this story at The Guardian – Mining poses new threat to world’s greatest rhino sanctuary.

Ben Hogan, Wildscreen ARKive PIPS Intern

Jul 7

The Galápagos archipelago is known for its extraordinarily rich abundance and diversity of native plants and animals found nowhere else in the world. However invasive species present on islands are threatening the Galápagos’ rare species, pushing many to the brink of extinction. To date, seven vertebrate species have become extinct, while 40% of the still existing 96 species are endangered – with invasive species as the primary threat.

The world’s only marine lizard, the endemic Galápagos marine iguana, is extremely vulnerable to invasive species which consume the young and even occasionally adults

Island Conservation began working to protect species in the Galápagos Archipelago in 2008. In 2011,  the Galápagos National Park, supported by Island Conservation, Charles Darwin Foundation, The Raptor Center, and Bell Laboratories, removed invasive rats from the islands of Rábida, North Plaza, three Beagle islets, and three of the Bainbridge Rocks to protect 12 unique Galápagos species considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to be threatened with extinction.  One success story from this project was the rediscovery of a land snail species on Rábida Island, which was presumed to be extinct as no live specimens had been observed or recorded since 1905-1906.

In 2012, work began to remove invasive species from another island in the Galápagos Archipelago, Pinzón Island. Over 150 years ago, invasive black rats invaded this island and began feeding on the defenceless eggs and hatchlings of the Pinzón giant tortoise. By the turn of the 20th century the island endemic tortoise was unable to establish its next generation of tortoises, resulting in a captive rearing program being set up.

Pinzon giant tortoise 2

Adult Pinzón giant tortoise © Island Conservation

By December 2012, the project to remove the invasive rat species from this island was completed. With the removal of the last remaining invasive vertebrate species threat, tortoise hatchlings are now emerging from native tortoises on the island and the Galápagos National Park have successfully returned 118 hatchlings to their native island home.

The removal of invasive species from these islands is part of a much larger project to restore other key Galápagos Island ecosystems to protect native plants and animals. The next major endeavour is to remove multiple invasive species from Floreana Island. Feral goats have already been removed from the island, but other invasive species remain which are a threat to the island’s rich biodiversity. This rich biodiversity includes the Critically Endangered Floreana mockingbird which has disappeared from the island, mainly as a result of invasive species. Now only surviving on two small neighbouring islets, the removal of invasive rats and cats from Floreana will allow for this bird to comeback from the brink of extinction.

The Critically Endangered Floreana mockingbird

To find out more about the great work that Island Conservation carry out, visit their website or facebook page.

Jul 3

Over 200 hundred years ago, the United States declared its independence and became its own sovereign nation. Often celebrated in America with BBQs and fireworks, the universal color scheme for any gathering today includes red, white and blue.  We thought we’d celebrate the 4th of July here at Arkive… but with our own wildlife twist!

Check out our favorite red, white and blue wildlife mascots for Independence Day this year!

RED – North Pacific giant octopus

Photo of North Pacific giant octopus

We could actually put the North Pacific giant octopus under the red and the white category since the species contains special pigment cells in the skin called chromatophores that, when activated, cause the octopus mantle to change colors from red to white. True to its name, the North Pacific giant octopus is the largest of all octopus species and can be found off the entire Pacific coast of the US.

White – Polar bear

Photo of Polar bear

The most well-known of all bears, the polar bear is immediately recognisable from the distinctive white colour of its thick fur. Did you know that the only unfurred parts of the body are the foot pads and the tip of its nose? The largest land carnivore, the polar bear calls the snowy habitat of Alaska home.

Blue – Blue whale

Photo of Blue whale

Despite its common name, the blue whale is actually grayish-blue and can even have a yellowish tinge caused by microscopic algae called ‘diatoms’. The blue whale is found in every ocean in the world except the Arctic!

Can you name some other North American RED, WHITE and BLUE animals?  Feel free to name some in the comments section and take a look to see if you can find them in the Arkive website.

From Arkive, we hope you have a happy and safe 4th of July!

Ari Pineda, Program Assistant, Wildscreen USA
Jun 19

Over $1.8 billion has been pledged by various parties at the ‘Our Ocean’ 2014 summit, and proposals have been made to double the amount of protected marine habitats around the world.

‘Our Ocean’ 2014 brought together leaders from business, government and academic institutions, and NGOs from over 80 countries to discuss how economic development and ocean conservation can be reconciled. The oceans are extremely important for humans, generating more than 50 percent of the oxygen we breathe, absorbing excess carbon dioxide, and providing a source of food and income for millions of people worldwide.

Oceans provide invaluable environmental services and supports vast arrays of animal and plant life.

The summit concentrated on several key themes in ocean conservation including sustainable fishing, marine pollution, and ocean acidification. Perhaps one of the most significant announcements at Our Ocean was President Obama’s intention to expand and create new marine reserves in the Pacific Ocean, while Kiribati announced it will expand its already vast Phoenix Islands Protected Area. If implemented, these proposals will more than double the total area of legally protected oceans.

President Obama said in a video to participants at Our Ocean, “I’m going to use my authority to protect some of our nation’s most precious marine landscapes.”

The yellowfin tuna, along with other tuna species, are heavily fished for commercial and recreational purposes.

Many of the world’s fish stocks are being fished at unsustainable levels, and it is thought that around 30 percent of the world’s fisheries are overexploited. The Our Ocean summit aimed to examine the steps fishery management authorities need to take to reduce, and ultimately end, overfishing and to mitigate adverse impacts on the broader marine environment. Initiatives proposed at the summit aim to end all overfishing on marine fish stocks by 2020, through a series of measures including increased transparency in allocating fishing rights, tougher enforcement of legislation and penalties for illegal fisheries, elimination of excess capacity in fishing fleets and minimising bycatch.

To this end, President Obama has announced a comprehensive new national programme on seafood traceability and openness which will allow customers in the United States to ensure that their seafood has been harvested legally and sustainably. Additionally, the United States launched the ‘mFish’ partnership, which will provide mobile devices to small-scale fisheries in developing nations with apps designed to access market and weather information and ensure accurate and easy catch reporting. Norway also pledged more than $150 million to promote fishery management and development abroad, including a new research vessel to train fisheries experts and managers around the world.

Laysan albatross fledging with neck caught in plastic coathanger, an example of the effects of marine pollution.

Significant advances have been made in addressing marine pollution from land- and ocean-based sources, by individuals and local communities at the regional and global scale, although much more needs to be done. Our Ocean 2014 has facilitated the development of initiatives to reduce total nutrient pollution in the ocean by 20 percent and to significantly reduce the input of debris into the marine environment by 2025. To help achieve this, Norway will allocate up to $1 million for a study on measures to combat marine plastic waste and microplastics. Additionally, the United States announced the Trash Free Waters programme, which aims to stop waste and debris from entering the ocean though sustainable product design, increased material recovery and recycling, and a new nationwide waste prevention ethic.

It is thought that coral reefs could be the first victims of ocean acidification, with one reef being destroyed every other day.

Due to ocean acidification, our oceans are approximately 30 percent more acidic than before the industrial revolution, and the ocean’s chemistry is currently changing 10 times faster than at any other time in the past 50 million years. Many organisms will not be able to adapt to the changes within their habitat, which will negatively impact both biodiversity and the crucial services that the oceans provide us. Initiatives to prevent further increases in ocean acidification were developed at the Our Oceans summit, which aim to reduce carbon emissions and monitor ocean acidification on a global scale.

Norway announced that it will allocate over $1 billion to climate change mitigation and adaptation assistance in 2015. The United States presented new projects to meet the challenges of ocean acidification and marine pollution in Africa, Central America, and the Caribbean, as well as contributing $640,000 to support the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Center in Monaco.

Find out more about the Our Oceans summit.

Find out more about coral reef conservation on Arkive.

Read more about ocean acidification on Arkive.

Read our blog on protecting our oceans for the future.

Learn more about the islands of the South Pacific on Arkive.

Ben Hogan, Wildscreen ARKive PIPS Intern

Jun 12

“When I first landed on what was Rat Island in 2007, it was an eerily silent place. A typical Aleutian island is teeming with wildlife, swirling with noisy, pungent birds. Not this place. It was crisscrossed with rat trails, littered with rat scat, scavenged bird bones, it even smelled…wrong,” reports Stacey Buckelew, an Island Conservation biologist. Buckelew first visited the island to help document centuries of damage to native birds and plant species from introduced invasive Norway rats.

Hawadax Island (formerly Rat Island), located in the Aleutian Islands off the coast of Alaska, is a 6,861 acre island uninhabited by humans. This treeless island has steep costal cliffs, a small central mountain range and broad rolling plateaus of maritime tundra. In the early 1780’s a shipwreck left the island with invasive Norway rats. Since their arrival the rats had decimated the islands native bird species by eating eggs, chicks, adult birds and plants.

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Hawadax Island (formerly Rat Island), Alaska © Island Conservation

In September 2008, Island Conservation, The US Fish and Wildlife Service and The Nature Conservancy successfully removed invasive rats from Hawadax Island. Following the removal of the rats all direct impacts, such as predation and competition for resources, immediately ceased.

Today the island is thriving. Since the removal of the rats, breeding tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) have been documented on the island for the first time and species thought to have been extirpated due to the rats, such as Leach’s storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) and fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcate), have been recorded.

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Tufted Puffins in waters around Hawadax Island, Alaska © Rory Stansbury / Island Conservation

Ground-nesting and shorebird numbers are increasing as well. A 2008 survey documented nine glaucous-winged gull nests whereas an identical survey carried out in the summer of 2013 discovered twenty eight nests, a three-fold increase. Black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) and rock sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) nests have also increased significantly. Song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), thought to be nearly extirpated by rats, and snow buntings, also decimated by rats, are rebounding as well.

Snow bunting in autumn

In 2012, Rat Island formally had its original Aleut name, Hawadax, restored in acknowledgement of the absence of rats.

To find out more about the great work that Island Conservation carry out, visit their website or facebook page.

Jemma Pealing, Arkive Content and Outreach Officer

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