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Here at ARKive, we provide the ultimate multimedia guide to endangered species, and through our blog we’ll keep you up to date with news from the world of wildlife videos, photography and conservation, alongside the latest on our quest to locate imagery of the planet’s most wanted plants and animals.
Apr 19
Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot' on Delicious Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot' on Digg Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot' on Facebook Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot' on reddit Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot' on StumbleUpon Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot' on Email Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot' on Print Friendly

Endangered Species of the Week: Vancouver Island marmot

Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis)

Species: Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis)

Status: Critically Endangered (CR)

Interesting Fact: The Vancouver Island marmot is thought to be one of the rarest mammals in North America, with a wild population of fewer than 100 individuals.

More information: The endemic Vancouver Island marmot is a stocky rodent that has a chestnut-brown pelage with a cream-coloured area around its nose and mouth. As with all marmots, the Vancouver Island marmot lives in family groups that usually contain one male, two females and the juveniles and young produced that year. The families occupy complex underground burrow systems in which they hibernate between the end of September and early May, surviving by using up the fat reserves that are built up throughout the summer.

Logging activities and weather fluctuations within the habitat of the Vancouver Island marmot are thought to have caused population declines. Additionally, the local deer population has recently increased and their presence is known to increase the amount of predators in an area which may also take Vancouver Island marmots.

The Vancouver Island marmot is legally protected through its listing on the British Columbia Wildlife Act. A recovery plan was established in 1988 in an attempt to save this species from the brink of extinction, and a captive breeding programme is now in place, with reintroductions of captive-bred individuals planned for the future.

See images of the Vancouver Island marmot on ARKive

Find out more about Vancouver Island and other islands of the North Pacific

Find out more about other marmot species

Hannah Mulvany, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

Apr 18
Share 'The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos' on Delicious Share 'The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos' on Digg Share 'The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos' on Facebook Share 'The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos' on reddit Share 'The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos' on StumbleUpon Share 'The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos' on Email Share 'The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos' on Print Friendly

The most important eggs this Easter: Saving the Rarest Bird in Galapagos

Earlier in 2014, sixteen tiny eggs were collected from two small pockets of mangrove forest on the western side of Isabela in the Galapagos Archipelago. These eggs, each the size of the nail on your little finger, belong to one of the rarest and most range restricted birds in the world: the mangrove finch (Camarhynchus heliobates). This small, brown, unassuming bird is one of the famous Darwin’s finches and is today the rarest endemic bird in Galapagos. There are less than 100 mangrove finches alive today and last year there were only 14 breeding pairs. But why are they so critically endangered?

Mangrove Finch © Michael Dvorak

Mangrove Finch © Michael Dvorak

Until recently, one of the main threats to mangrove finches was introduced rats. As generalist carnivores, rats would seek out and feed on the eggs and chicks of finches during the breeding season. Fortunately, rats are now being controlled at the breeding sites but now a much smaller invasive species poses an even larger threat.

Philornis downsi is a species of fly native to Trinidad and Brazil. It was introduced to Galapagos in the 1960s and has now spread to 14 islands within the Archipelago. The adults of this fly are harmless, feeding almost exclusively on nectar, but in their larval stage they are blood-sucking parasites. Female flies lay their eggs in the nests of small breeding land birds. Blind, naked and weak, the mangrove finch hatchlings are an easy target for the fly larvae which feed on their blood, very often resulting in the death of the chick. In 2013, 37% of chicks were killed this way – a massive hit to such a tiny population.

Philornis downsi larvae © A. Muth

Philornis downsi larvae © A. Muth

So why are the scientists removing eggs? In an effort to ensure that the mangrove finch does not become the first bird to go extinct in Galapagos since before Darwin’s time, scientists from the Charles Darwin Foundation and San Diego Zoo are, with support from the Galapagos National Park, taking action. During the mangrove finch breeding season, females lay up to five clutches of eggs but the first few rarely survive. By taking this first clutch, hatching and raising the chicks in captivity, then releasing them back into the wild when they are old enough, the project should result in more individuals being added to the population each year.

Chick being hand fed © Juan Carlos Avila

Chick being hand fed © Juan Carlos Avila

By raising the chicks in captivity, they will have avoided the nest-bound parasites and will have been given a ‘head-start’ in life. 2014 was the first time ‘head-starting’ has been trialled on mangrove finches and it is proving a great success. The sixteen eggs have hatched and the mangrove finch chicks are being released back into the mangroves right now. The future of the mangrove finch is starting to look a little brighter.

2. Remaining mangrove finch habitat 2 - (c)Francesca Cunninghame

Remaining mangrove finch habitat © Francesca Cunninghame

For more information on the project and to keep up to date with progress, please visit www.mangrovefinchappeal.org

Apr 17
Share 'Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos' on Delicious Share 'Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos' on Digg Share 'Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos' on Facebook Share 'Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos' on reddit Share 'Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos' on StumbleUpon Share 'Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos' on Email Share 'Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos' on Print Friendly

Guest blog: Conserving Galapagos

Located in the Pacific Ocean, 600 miles off the coast of Ecuador, the volcanic Galapagos Islands are a living laboratory of evolution and a template for conservation for the rest of the world. Consisting of 14 large islands and 120 smaller islets and rocks, and surrounded by the 53,000 square miles of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (a World Heritage Site in its own right), this isolated environment is home to many unique species which vary from island to island. Charles Darwin’s appreciation of this distinctive quality has given Galapagos a special place in history and the development of modern science.

Galapagos Islands Map

Galapagos Islands map

Since Darwin’s time, travellers and settlers have disturbed the Islands’ ecological balance. In some cases, natural habitats and endemic species have been decimated and invasive plants and animals have become established, yet Galapagos remains one of the best-conserved tropical oceanic archipelagos in the world.

1. Bay with Pinacle Rock

Bay with Pinacle Rock, Galapagos © Phyl King

The Galapagos Conservation Trust (GCT) is the only UK charity to work exclusively towards a sustainable future for the Galapagos Islands. Supporting projects in the fields of science, education and culture since 1995, we have been working in programme areas including habitat restoration, invasive species management, sustainable development and education both locally in Galapagos and internationally.

1. Giant Tortoises

Galapagos giant tortoises © Alex Hearn

In the UK, we raise awareness of conservation matters in Galapagos through our network of committed supporters and the media. This year we are set to launch Discovering Galapagos - a brand new bilingual educational resource for use in the UK and Ecuador through which school children, our future conservation ambassadors, will use Galapagos as a template to learn about global conservation issues.

1. Marine Iguana

Galapagos marine iguana © Vanessa Green

Over the next few weeks, we are excited to be sharing with you via our friends at ARKive some of the cutting-edge conservation projects that we are supporting right now in the Islands.

For more information:

GCT Email: gct@gct.org
Website: www.savegalapagos.org
Discovering Galapagos website: www.discoveringgalapagos.org.uk
GCT Blog: http://galapagosblog.org/
GCT Facebook: www.facebook.com/pages/Galapagos-Conservation-Trust/33337561833
GCT Twitter: @galapagossip

Apr 12
Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo' on Delicious Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo' on Digg Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo' on Facebook Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo' on reddit Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo' on StumbleUpon Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo' on Email Share 'Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo' on Print Friendly

Endangered Species of the Week: Doria’s tree kangaroo

Doria's tree kangaroo image

Doria’s tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus)

Species: Doria’s tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus)

Status: Vulnerable (VU)

Interesting Fact: Doria’s tree kangaroo is the heaviest tree-dwelling marsupial in the world, weighing as much as 20 kilograms, and is capable of jumping down to the ground from a height of up to 18 metres without injury.

Despite its appearance and arboreal nature, Doria’s tree kangaroo is closely related to the well-known ground kangaroos that can be seen across Australian plains, and has similar strongly developed hindquarters and a long, well-furred tail. Unlike its Australian relatives, Doria’s tree kangaroo is endemic to the island of New Guinea, where it is found in the central highlands. This species has fairly long fur, which interestingly grows in a reverse direction on the back and neck. This is presumably to stop water running down its face, as this marsupial tends to sit with its head lower than its shoulders.

While Doria’s tree kangaroo is thought to still be common in some areas of its range, intense and consistent hunting pressure for its meat has led to the local extinction of many populations of this species. In the past, hunting of this prized game species by local people may have been sustainable, but advances in the development of hunting equipment, combined with a rising human population, has led to an increase in hunting. Habitat loss and degradation of forested areas as a result of exploitation for timber poses an additional threat to Doria’s tree kangaroo.

Doria’s tree kangaroo is legally protected in the Indonesian part of New Guinea. However, this is not yet the case in Papua New Guinea, and the protection of vital forest habitat in this region has been recommended to ensure the future survival of this intriguing marsupial. In addition, measures to control or restrict traditional hunting have been suggested as key factors in the conservation of this threatened species.

See images and videos of Doria’s tree kangaroo on ARKive.

Find out more about New Guinea and other South Pacific islands.

Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

Apr 11
Share 'In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands' on Delicious Share 'In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands' on Digg Share 'In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands' on Facebook Share 'In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands' on reddit Share 'In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands' on StumbleUpon Share 'In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands' on Email Share 'In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands' on Print Friendly

In the News: Rising sea levels will submerge thousands of islands

A recent report published in the journal Nature Conservation has found that sea levels are rising at a higher rate than they have for thousands of years, putting many islands and the species living on them at risk.

Global climate change is negatively affecting the Earth and its oceans in many ways, and these impacts are predicted to be the greatest cause of future species extinctions. The increasing temperature on Earth is melting the sea ice at the North and South Poles, which is increasing the amount of water in the oceans. The temperature of the ocean is also increasing, which raises the volume of the seawater due to the molecules requiring more space to move. “Sea level rise is one of the most certain consequences of global warming, yet it remains the least studied,” the study said. “Potential effects of sea level rise are of considerable interest because of its potential impact on biodiversity and society.”

Seychelles image

The Seychelles may be one of the groups of islands at risk of flooding due to rising sea levels

Of the 180,000 islands on Earth, all low-lying islands are particularly at risk and it is thought that over 10,000 of them could disappear, along with the species that live on them, if the sea level rise predictions are correct. Islands are home to a much higher proportion of endemic species than mainland areas, with the entire population of the Alaotran gentle lemur, New Caledonia blossom bat, Seychelles frog and thousands of other species being found on just one island, or a small group of islands. The submersion of numerous islands will not just impact fauna and flora, with human populations living in coastal areas also being forced to move inland or relocate completely in response to the rising sea levels, and coastal industries being lost.

New Caledonia blossom bat

The New Caledonia blossom bat is only found in a few caves in northern New Caledonia

New Caledonia and French Polynesia are thought to be the islands most at risk of disappearing under water, with islands in the Caribbean and Mediterranean and those in close proximity to Guyana and Madagascar also under threat. The study found that, after a predicted sea rise of between 0.5 and 2.3 metres, more than 30 percent of the totally submerged islands would be in New Caledonia, 30 percent in French Polynesia and 10 percent in the Mediterranean, with the rest occurring in other regions.

French Polynesia image

It is predicted that 30 percent of French Polynesia will be under water when sea levels rise

The authors of the study said, “Considering their important contribution to global biodiversity and the threat of sea level rise for future biodiversity of some of these islands, there is an urgent need that islands feature prominently in global and regional conservation prioritisation schemes.” Less than 5 percent of the Earth’s land area is represented by islands, although they are home to around 20 percent of the world’s bird, reptile and plant species, as well as other fauna. Of all known extinctions, 80 percent have occurred on islands, and although climate change may be partially to blame, the negative effects of invasive species, deforestation, over-collection and various other threats are more prevalent in island ecosystems than on the mainland and have much greater and more severe impacts on island species.

Laysan crake image

The Extinct Laysan crake disappeared from Hawai’i due to the negative effects of invasive species

Find out more about the effects of climate change on animal and plant species

Find out more about the islands of the North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Find out more about the conservation of islands

Hannah Mulvany, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

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