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Here at Arkive, we provide the ultimate multimedia guide to endangered species, and through our blog we’ll keep you up to date with news from the world of wildlife videos, photography and conservation, alongside the latest on our quest to locate imagery of the planet’s most wanted plants and animals.
Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: spotted hyaena

Nominated by: Ruaha Carnivore Project

Why do we love the spotted hyaena?

Spotted hyaenas, or laughing hyaenas, are seen as scavengers and are pretty much at the bottom of most people’s lists of favourite creatures, along with cockroaches and flies.  Ask anyone and they’ll usually tell you that hyaenas are cowardly, ugly, opportunistic and sinister – being linked to witchcraft (voodoo) hasn’t helped their case.  This Valentine’s Day the Ruaha Carnivore Project wants to change your mind and turn your views around.  Did you know that spotted hyaenas are fantastic mothers, fiercely loyal, wonderfully social and are skilled hunters? In fact they hunt more and scavenge less than lions!  Another common myth to bust is that hyenas are NOT dogs!! Hyenas are more closely related to mongooses and cats.  They’re feisty and have been known to confront lions, and can successfully drive lions off kills and defend their own meals from the big cats.

They are highly social and intelligent animals – amazingly, studies have shown that they are better at problem-solving and social cooperation than chimpanzees, and even more impressively, managed to solve the problems they were faced with in silence, using non-verbal communication. They can and do communicate over long distances, though – the hyaena’s whooping call is an iconic sound of the African wilderness, although few people realise that the pitch and tone of the ‘laugh’ actually indicate social status to other hyaenas.

In spotted hyaena society, the women hold the power (another reason to love them!) – and the core of the clan (which can reach 80 animals) is comprised of related females who form the top hierarchy. Fascinatingly, female hyaenas become very masculinised before birth and have three times the level of testosterone as males. This means that female spotted hyaenas are larger and more muscular than males – impressively, they even have a ‘pseudo-penis’ (actually an elongated clitoris) which can reach seven inches long, leading people as far back as Aristotle to falsely believe that they were hermaphrodites.

The often vitriolic and unwarranted treatment that hyaenas receive makes it all the more important to stand up for them – who doesn’t want to champion the underdog! Hyaenas have long been associated with witchcraft and even in our study area in rural Tanzania some people still believe that naked, invisible witches ride on hyaenas’ backs. Many myths surround hyaenas, such as them digging up the dead and morphing into werewolf-type beasts to attack people at night. Sadly, this leads to extensive persecution of these amazing animals, and they are frequently killed in rural areas.

Even without the human impacts, life as a spotted hyaena isn’t easy.  They’re born into a den, with no communal care – not even from their fathers.  Although litter sizes are small (1 – 4), they fight with their siblings from an early age and 1 in 4 cubs die within the first month due to the ferocity of their attacks on each other. Although not cuddly at birth – being born with their eyes wide open and a full set of teeth – we have to hand it to them as survivors in a hostile world…. And with this, we ask you to cast your vote in their favour.

What are the threats to the Spotted hyaena?

Being of Least Concern on the IUCN Red List means that there is no special treatment reserved for them in the conservation hierarchy. They’re often associated with attacks on villagers’ livestock and are persecuted along with other carnivores who attack livestock. As human populations expand and growth of agriculture, settlements and roads continues, wildlife is losing space in which it was previously able to roam freely.

What are we doing to save the species, to reduce persecution and to raise awareness?

As one of the Ruaha Carnivore Project’s main concerns is human-wildlife conflict we are engaged in programmes which actively change the way people think about the species, by taking school children and villagers on educational Park visits to become acquainted with wildlife, and especially top predators, in a safe environment, where they can ask questions and learn about the vital role these species play in the ecosystem.

Retaliation is the primary reason for hyaena killings. We work with communities to help them fortify bomas —( livestock enclosures)—that protect stock from predators.  Protecting bomas with wire has proved very effective – they reduce losses by as much as 95%. Importantly, we also develop community benefit programmes so that people see real rewards from living alongside dangerous species such as hyaenas – we have developed education, healthcare and veterinary health benefit programmes which have proved extremely valuable in terms of increasing local tolerance for hyaenas and other wildlife.

In our extensive camera-trapping programme we work with colleagues both within and outside Ruaha National Park, to collect information from as many carnivore sightings as possible. We equip Ruaha National Park lodge drivers with data collection devices and cameras, and they record and report large carnivore sightings to us each month. This initiative has been incredibly valuable, and by the end of 2015, 22 drivers from eight lodges had reported over 8,000 sightings to us and had also generously shared their invaluable insights into the behaviour and ecology of Ruaha’s carnivore populations. However, as we also need to get information on carnivore presence and movement outside tourist areas, we will be deploying satellite collars on lions and spotted hyaenas around Ruaha, so we can collect that information and use it to inform future conservation plans.

Tourists in Ruaha can help with our work by submitting photographs of these amazing animals to us. More widely, an innovative safari company has dedicated one of its tours to the species, and, as a member of the public you can get up close and personal by booking into a ‘spotted hyaena safari’.  So, move aside the big five…. as the spotted hyaena takes on a new and much-deserved significance.

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Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: Macaya breast-spot frog

Nominated by: Durrell Wildlife Trust

Why do you love it?

Good things come in small packages and the diminutive Macaya breast-spot frog, one of the smallest frogs in the world, is definitely one. These beautiful red frogs inhabit the high altitude (1,700 – 2,340 masl) montane pine and cloud forests of Pic Macaya and Pic Formond in the Massif de la Hotte, Haiti. The males call can be heard throughout the day but are most prominent at night when it provides a background chorus of tinkling glass to the atmospheric forest. Importantly, the Macaya breast-spot frog is just one of 17 Critically Endangered and Endangered species endemic to the Massif de la Hotte making it arguably the most important site for amphibian conservation in the world.

Top facts

  • – Adults measure less than 15mm from snout to vent
  • – Females only lay around 3 eggs each which hatch directly into miniature versions of the miniature adults
  • – It was only rediscovered in 2010 having not been seen in nearly 20 years

What are the threats to the Macaya breast-spot frog?

It has a highly restricted range which is being threatened by habitat loss primarily for charcoal production and agriculture.

What are you doing to save it?

Yes, Durrell, along with Philadelphia Zoo is supporting local partner Société Audubon Haiti to undertake a series of amphibian surveys across the Macaya National Park as part of the National Parks Management Plan. These aim to better understand the diverse and highly threatened amphibian fauna found there and assess how habitat loss is impacting the various species. This information can then be used to improve the management of the National Park to both protect its endemic fauna and provide local people with the resources they require.

For more information on the work Durrell is doing to Save Amphibians From Extinction visit their website.

VOTE NOW!

 

Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: pelagic thresher

Nominated by: Sharks4Kids

Why do you love it?

The pelagic thresher has a tail that can be as long as the body itself. It uses this tail to stun prey, which has earned them the nickname “ninja shark.” This amazing adaptation makes this animal truly unique.

What are the threats to pelagic thresher?

This shark is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List and the population is decreasing. They are targeted by commercial fisheries for their fins, meat, liver oil and skin. They are also caught as bycatch on tuna longlines. It is estimated that thresher shark fins make up 2-3% of the fins auctioned off in Hong Kong markets.

What are you doing to save it? Our team does not work directly with these sharks, but we are working to spread education and awareness about the species to students around the world. We are promoting the addition of all 3 species of thresher shark to the CITES Appendix II listing. We have also introduced a new

Our team does not work directly with these sharks, but we are working to spread education and awareness about the species to students around the world. We are promoting the addition of all 3 species of thresher shark to the CITES Appendix II listing. We have also introduced a new colouring fact sheeting to get students excited about this species.

VOTE NOW!

Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: silky shark

Nominated by: Project AWARE

Why do you love it?

It may not be as well-known as its hammerhead, great white or oceanic whitetip cousins but the silky shark is undoubtedly one of the most magnificent! This streamlined and sleek ocean predator gets its name from its exceptionally smooth skin and metallic tone.

Project AWARE® has always had a lot of love for this shark but in 2016 we fell head over heels. The 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES CoP17) was firmly on our agenda. Project AWARE rallied support from the global dive community and engaged with relevant governments to urge member signatories to protect the silky shark and other commercially valuable shark and ray species from the devastating effects of unregulated international trade. Together with our shark conservation partners, including Shark Advocates International and the Shark Trust, we delivered strong science-based arguments in support of international trade controls for the silky shark. And we celebrated, as proposals for the silky shark and other shark and ray species to be listed on CITES Appendix II were successfully adopted.

What are the threats to the silky shark?

This highly migratory, low productivity shark is at risk from substantial incidental take in high seas fisheries. Due to its beautifully marked skin, the silky shark is a popular target for the shark leather trade. Like many other sharks, it is also fished for its fins, meat and liver oil.

Silky sharks are among the shark species most commonly captured in pelagic longline and purse seine gear set primarily for tunas; the associated mortality is the primary threat to silky shark populations. They are vulnerable to overfishing due to slow growth, late maturity, lengthy gestation, and few young.

Classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, and ranked among the top three most important sharks in the global fin trade, the silky shark truly deserves all our love and attention.

What are you doing to save it?

In our work to end overexploitation of sharks and rays, Project AWARE advocates for national, regional, and global conservation actions that limit catch based on science and the precautionary approach, and we advocate for the end of at-sea removal of fins. We inform, inspire and empower shark advocates to become shark defenders and use our powerful and collective voice to influence change for the most vulnerable shark and ray species.

In 2017, we encourage our community to be an agent of positive change for the ocean. We believe we can create a global culture that nurtures and sustains a thriving, vibrant ocean.

Find out about the many ways that Project AWARE help sharks and other marine creatures, and how you can help on their website.

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Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: common guitarfish

Nominated by: Shark Advocates

Why should you love it?

Guitarfish are rays characterized by magnificent, triangular, flattened heads. They have “wings” like rays, but also shark-like bodies, complete with tall, pointy dorsal fins, which help to demonstrate how closely sharks and rays are related. Guitarfish spend their time cruising along the seabed, or partially buried in the sand. They are beautiful from above and, depending on your imagination, can appear rather expressive from below. Guitarfish give birth to just a few fully-formed pups, which are – arguably — the cutest things ever. Somehow, these charismatic fish are not getting anywhere near the love they deserve, and are now among the most threatened of all the world’s shark and ray families. The “Common” Guitarfish of West Africa and the Mediterranean is one of the most imperilled of the many guitarfish species.

What are the threats to the common guitarfish?

The main threat to guitarfish around the world is overfishing, through both targeted and incidental catches that are too often completely unregulated. They are taken for their meat and for their fins, which are highly prized for shark fin soup. Their bottom-dwelling nature makes guitarfish vulnerable to a variety of fishing gears, including bottom-tending gillnets and trawls. Their nearshore habitats are at risk from fishing impacts as well as development and pollution. Once found all around the Mediterranean and along the west coast of Spain and Africa, the Common Guitarfish is common no more; the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classifies this species as Endangered and warns it may already be extinct in some parts of its range.

What is Shark Advocates International doing to save it?

We’re supporting IUCN Shark Specialist Group efforts to raise the global conservation profile of all guitarfishes, and – more specifically —  working with Shark Trust, Project AWARE, and other partners to ensure fulfilment of commitments to protect the Common Guitarfish (and 23 other elasmobranchs) under Mediterranean fisheries and wildlife treaties, such as the Barcelona Convention. We also promote capacity building for West African shark and ray conservation, highlight opportunities to help guitarfish through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and support implementation of the recent Common Guitarfish listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Thank you for your help!

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