Feb 27

Everybody loves polar bears – don’t they? Today is International Polar Bear Day, a chance for us all to celebrate this magnificent species and do our bit to help them.

Polar bears on thin ice

Polar bears might look big and tough but with their arctic habitat disappearing fast, the future of the world’s largest land carnivore is in our hands. Climate change is the biggest threat facing polar bears, as they depend on sea ice for hunting and breeding grounds and as the ice retreats, they must increasingly travel longer, more challenging distances across open water.

Polar bear moving over thin ice and swimming between ice floes

Video of polar bear moving over thin ice and swimming between ice floes

We can all play a part in reducing the threats to polar bears. Today, Polar Bear International is encouraging us all to do our bit to reduce our carbon footprint. You can take part in their challenge to turn your thermostat down (or up) a few degrees (depending on where you live), lowering your carbon emissions and helping  polar bears today and everyday .

Share your love for polar bears

We’re celebrating polar bear day across all our social channels – why not join in and help us to raise the profile of polar bears.

Get creative with our caption contest!

Can you think of a witty or fun caption for this polar bear photo?

Photo of  polar bear asleep in snow

Our polar bear-loving Twitter followers have already come up with these gems:


“Delilah was so relaxed during her Yoga session, she didn’t notice all the other girls had left for lunch already…”


Yeah Baby !!! thats reeelaxed

Can you do better? Tweet your captions, post them on Facebook or email us! We’ll choose and share our favourite tomorrow!


Show your support for polar bears, by joining in with our campaign to become a polar bear for the day – simply add this polar bear badge to your Facebook and Twitter profiles.

Feb 21

Turtles took over @ARKive’s Twitter account yesterday when turtle expert Professor Brendan Godley answered your burning questions about sea turtles. We loved Brendan’s guest blogs about his turtle research and leatherback turtles, so we were delighted when he offered to take time out of his busy research schedule on Ascension Island to tweet about turtles (in temperatures of 35 °C).

And Brendan wasn’t just feeling the heat on Ascension, but also on our Twitter stream. You tweeted some tricky questions to test his expertise, but we think you’ll agree that he came up turtle trumps! Here are just some of the #turtletweet highlights:

Photo of female flatback turtle digging nest

Female flatback turtle digging nest

Turtles on Ascension

@JellicleKat You’re out on Ascension Island at the moment…how long is the nesting season, and how many females nest there? #turtletweet

In the 1930s it was down to a few hundred but now about 5000 per year. 6 month season. #turtletweet

@inthefieldnews  Sea turtles return to the same beach where they hatched as juveniles to breed…but where do they go in between?

They go to one or more foraging areas that can be many thousands of miles. eg here on Ascension its Brazil #turtletweet

Top Turtle Facts

@eldenney: what’s your most interesting turtle fact? Thanks! #turtletweet

The fact that green turtles can rest at the bottom of the Mediterrannean sea for as long as 10.5 hours #turtletweet

@eldenney Cool! I can’t stay underwater for much more than 30 secs! Green turtles are impressive #turtletweet

Photo of green turtle with turtle barnacles

Green turtle with turtle barnacles on its shell

@clairecjl: Hi Brendan, I was wondering how long it takes leatherbacks to reach full size? #turtletweet

This is still debated, with work to be done but anywhere between 10 and 20 years seem the best estimates to date. #turtletweet

What’s the difference between a turtle and a terrapin?

@lillashaw Hi Brendan, we were debating this in the office the other day… What’s the difference between a turtle and terrapin? #turtletweet

Its semantics N america everything can be a turtle, in UK turtle is sea, terrapin is freshwater, tortoise on land. #turtletweet

Turtles and fishing

@Jess_Cripps Do you think more could be done by fisheries to reduce the bycatch of turtles in their equipment? #turtletweet

I do. Much has been done already TEDS (trawlers), Circle hooks (longlines) and these can be improved #turtletweet

One of the great ongoing challenges is that of how to minimise bycatch in gillnets #turtletweet

Photo of a green turtle trapped in fishing net

Green turtle trapped in fishing net

Which species of turtles are thriving? Which are endangered?

RT @DanielsImage: @ARKive@BrendanGodley How many species of sea turtles are there? Are any thriving? #turtletweet

.@DanielsImage @BrendanGodley Big winners r Atlantic green turtles, ones struggling incl Pacific leatherbacks and hawksbills. #turtletweet

Photof of front on view of a hawksbill turtle

Hawksbill turtle

Why are turtles endangered?

@harrypurplmonky What has happened to make turtles endangered? #turtletweet

Exploited for meat and eggs for a long time &have started to recover where they r protected on beach and sea#turtletweet

Photo of green turtle shells, butchered alive for blood and meat

The shells of green turtles, butchered alive for blood and meat

.@inthefieldnews… what would you say is the biggest threat facing sea turtles worldwide?

as with all marine biodiversity; I would say it fishing followed by climate change #turtletweet

Climate Change

@Jess_Cripps: Do you think turtles will start to breed earlier in response to climate change? #turtletweet

Not yet but it will soon! In Cyprus they are already 90% female…will get worse with inc temps #turtletweet

@eldenney: poor boys! #turtletweet

Photo of Kemp's ridley turtle hatchlings

Kemp’s ridley turtle hatchlings

Plastic Pollution

@Wildlife_Jason: What would you say is the worst problem for #turtles caused by #plasticpollution in our oceans?

“Turtles, partic babies & all leatherbacks eat it..less of a problem than fisheries though” via @BrendanGodley #turtletweet

Photo of green turtle suffocating on plastic bag

Green turtle suffocating on plastic bag

Turtles on film

@WildscreenFest: What part does wildlife filmmaking has to play in #turtle conservation? #turtletweet

@Wildlife_Film: What did you think of the footage of baby green turtles in @BBCNature #Africa?bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01… #turtletweet

As seen on recent #Africa, there is clearly a role. MT are emblomatic #turtletweet

@Podgeosaurus: When filming do you think crews should aid baby turtles, or stay hands off? #turtletweet

Difficult one; up to individs. they shouldnt do is make things worse by releasing in daylight or hold hatchlings back#turtletweet

@lauriebelch why do some populations of turtles hatch in the day when it seems that predation risk is much higher#turtletweet

.@ARKive @lauriebelch very few do, but for obvious reasons we see more of it on film. More starlight cameras needed. #turtletweet

How can we help turtles?

@eldenney: so is there anything we can do to help turtles? #turtletweet

think about seafood choices, climate change and your role, get involved or help those who are.#turtletweet

@DanielsImage: Our support $ only go so far. Are there any organizations to support turtles you favor? #turtletweet

If I was to plump for one I would choose @seaturtle .org which is a one man show, no overheads and has transformed the field

@dodger_wake Some may not like it can we not ‘farm’ the endangered turtles to allow survival rates for eggs to raise then release

It’s done in the Cayman Islands for over 40 years, adults are now returning that were released #turtletweet

Cute or shocking photos?

@wild_photos: Our question for @ARKive’s#turtletweet! What do you think is more powerful in conservation: cute turtle images or ones showing turtle loss?

.@colaciregui @wild_photos @KACHUGABUT pictures of baby turtles always draws a gasp from the crowd! :)

Photo of young hawksbill turtle caught in a fishing net

Young hawksbill turtle caught in a fishing net

Turtle thanks!

@harrypurplmonky Wow what a #turtletweet! TY @ARKive & @brendangodley Harry’s learned so much about turtles & conservation!… http://fb.me/KGOX0CX8

@Wildlife_Jason @BrendanGodley @ARKive Thanks for an informative #turtletweet time! :)


We’d like to join our followers in thanking Professor Brendan Godley for his turtle-takeover – informative, thought-provoking, and turtle-tastic!

Get regular updates from Brendan by following him on Twitter @brendangodley, and check out his recommended top tweeters: @UoExeterCEC, @EcoSoc_Tremough, @LifeNatureMag and @BioBlitzTremou.

Would you like to see more twitter takeovers? What topics would you be interested in? Follow @ARKive and let us know!

Sep 12

Alaska’s sea otters are helping to combat ocean acidification by preying on sea urchins which, if left unchecked, could be detrimental to the health of the oceans, according to a new study.

Sea otter image

Sea otter grooming among kelp

Climate-friendly lunch

By preying on sea urchins that feed on underwater kelp beds, sea otters are stemming the accumulation of acidic carbon dioxide in Alaska’s waters. When absorbed into the ocean, atmospheric carbon dioxide increases water acidity levels, a phenomenon known as ‘ocean acidification’, which can be harmful to marine environments. Kelp beds are important components of marine ecosystems, as they absorb oceanic carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, and produce oxygen in its place.

According to a new study published in a recent issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, otter-protected kelp beds absorb approximately 12 times as much carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis as thinned-out kelp beds. By eating sea urchins, otters are providing the kelp forests with a chance to grow and help reduce ocean acidification.

Based on prices used in the European Carbon Exchange, the study reports that it would cost between $205 million and $408 million to offset the carbon that urchin-eating sea otters are enabling kelp beds to absorb.

Sea otter feeding image

Sea otter feeding on red sea urchin

Cute and beneficial

Co-author Jim Estes said that he hopes the study, which relied on data collected over a 40-year period between British Columbia, Canada, and Alaska’s Aleutian Islands, would help people to understand the importance of sea otters and the far-reaching benefits they provide.

On the one side, people like sea otters because they’re fuzzy, cool things. On the other side, a lot of people hate them,” said Mr Estes, a biologist and sea otter expert at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He went on to explain that fishermen, including shellfish harvesters, are in direct competition with sea otters, and are notoriously hostile towards the charismatic marine mammals. However, Mr Estes pointed out that by preserving kelp forests, sea otters are actually providing a service to fishermen, as kelp beds are an important habitat for many fish species.

Sea otter pair image

Sea otter pair anchored in kelp

A species under threat

Victims of a commercial harvest, sea otters were once hunted to the brink of extinction, until a treaty in 1911 ended the commercial hunt and numbers began to increase. Yet according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the species is still not out of the woods. The sea otter population from Kodiak, Alaska, to the western Aleutian Islands has dropped sharply in size in recent years, potentially declining as much as 67% since the mid-1980s. In 2005, the western Alaska sea otter population was listed as ‘threatened’ under the Endangered Species Act.

Oil spills and other human-related impacts have also had a negative effect on sea otter numbers, but many scientists studying Alaska’s populations believe that predation by killer whales is currently the main reason for declines. Steller’s sea lions and seals, key prey species for killer whales, have become scarce, leading the whales to target sea otters.


Read more on this story at The Telegraph – Sea otters ‘helping combat ocean acidification’.

Find out more about sea otters on ARKive.

Learn more about sea otters and their conservation at Monterey Bay Aquarium and at Friends of the Sea Otter.


Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Species Text Author

Apr 25

Creative climate Change Challenge imageARKive’s Creative Climate Change Challenge was launched during Climate Week back in March. We asked you to get creative and through an exciting and engaging way, raise awareness about a species affected by climate change.

The creativity was outstanding – we received everything from papier mache penguins to clownfish cookies. The ARKive judges were taken on an emotional roller coaster – from the tear jerking tale of the table mountain ghost frog to the awe-inspiring sounds of a karaoke koala!

The judges were looking for entries which evoked an emotional response that would inspire people to do something to help combat climate change. The results are in and there were 3 entries that, in the judges’ minds, stood out above the rest. So, drum roll please……..

Winner of the 16-18 category

I bet your drum roll’s not as good as the drumming skills of these very worthy winners - the Antsiranana Boy Scouts group! The scouts wrote and performed a song about climate change and its effects on the hawksbill turtle, which nests on the beaches of Northern Madagascar where the boys live. The scouts conduct all their awareness raising activities in collaboration with Community Centred Conservation (C3).

The Antsiranana Boy Scouts say, “We will be performing this song in local rural communities, but hope that people all over the world will watch online and learn more about the effects of climate change on the fano hara (hawksbill turtle in Malagasy) and what can be done to help.”

Winner of the 12-15 category

The polar bear is the star of the show in this poetic piece of song-writing by 14 year–old Emmy, from the US. Download the polar bear song.

Photo of polar bear swimming

Winner of the under 11 category

And finally, the prize for the under 11 category goes to Marcus and Kalina from the the UK. Top marks for entertainment. Flying fish anyone?


Marcus and Kalina’s teacher, Tasha Waldman, believes that educating children about climate change helps to raise awareness of our planet, giving understanding and hope to future generations. Marcus comments “Global warming is important because it is changing our planet and we need to help animals who can’t change with it“. Kalina agrees saying, “Lots of animals are dying and it’s our fault. It’s not just minor, it’s a MAJOR problem“. Wise words from some of our youngest contestants.

Get involved

Why not share one of the Creative Climate Change Challenge winning entries, helping our worthy winners to get their voice and message about climate change heard around the globe.

You can also let us know what you’re doing to help combat climate change by entering your comments below or joining in the conversation on Facebook, Twitter or Google+.

Congratulations to all our winners and a big thank you to all who took part in ARKive’s Creative Climate Change Challenge.

Apr 18

Climate change will make conserving the world’s biodiversity – including the human benefits associated with conservation, such as clean air and water – much more challenging and expensive, research reveals.

Climate change driving up costs

According to a group of international researchers convened by Conservation International, climate change may in some cases drive up costs by more than 100%.

Focussing on species and ecosystems in South Africa, Madagascar and California, the researchers present the first ever estimates of how much it will cost the global community to adapt conservation efforts to climate change, calling the studies a ‘wake-up call’.

The results of the research have been published as a series of three papers in the journal Conservation Biology, under the title ‘Conservation Focus: Costs of Adapting Conservation to Climate Change’.


Asteropeia micraster flowers and leaves close up

Asteropeia micraster, an endangered plant belonging to the Asteropeiaceae - a family endemic to Madagascar

In Madagascar, one of the world’s most biologically rich countries, researchers predicted how climate change would affect the ranges and survival of 74 endemic plant species between the years 2000 to 2080.

They found that as the climate in Madagascar changes over time, species that are currently protected in today’s forests will be pushed out into areas where forests are unprotected or gone.

The vast majority of Madagascar’s forests have already disappeared due to habitat loss, and the researchers found that restoring forests to avoid extinction of species would in future be harder and more expensive than maintaining existing forest.

The researchers calculated that maintaining existing forests in community-managed areas costs about $160-576 per hectare, while restoring forests in the same areas would cost six times as much.


Bay checkerspot on a tidy-tips flower

Bay checkerspot on a tidy-tips flower - one of 11 species studied in California as part of research on the costs of climate change

In California, the researchers picked 11 species, including the Bay checkerspot butterfly, the grasshopper sparrow and the San Joaquin kit fox, all of which occur within a conservation area in the Central Coast of California. They then projected the costs of conserving these species in 2050 and 2100 under realistic climate change scenarios.

The results of the study showed that under climate change, the boundaries of the California conservation area will need to be dramatically expanded and many of the species studied will need interventions such as captive breeding and relocation to achieve current conservation goals.

According to the researchers, the costs of meeting conservation goals for the 11 species studied will be close to 150% higher than if there is no climate change by 2050, and could be up to 220% more by 2100 – at a cost of $2.63 billion.

South Africa

Silver tree in fynbos habitat

The silver tree, a member of the Proteaceae family, in fynbos habitat in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

The studies carried out by scientists in South Africa looked at options to expand protected areas in the Cape Floristic biodiversity hotspot to safeguard the survival of 316 species unique to the Proteaceae family of flowering plants.

The results demonstrated that protecting sufficient habitat for this important family of plants to make them more resilient to climate change could cost over $1 billion. However, by establishing new contracts with landowners and exploring more cost-efficient avenues to manage the important habitats in the region, these costs could be reduced significantly.

A costly wake-up call

According to Lee Hannah, lead author and senior scientist for climate change biology at Conservation International, “The specific effects of climate change on species in South Africa, Madagascar and California are very different, but the costs of conserving them will certainly increase considerably in all three regions under climate change. We can have a healthy planet and keep extra costs to a minimum by acting quickly to cut emissions and incorporate climate change into conservation plans.”

Read the full press release at Conservation International

Read the three papers in Conservation Biology – Conservation Focus: Costs of Adapting Conservation to Climate Change.

Find out more about Climate Change on ARKive

Helen Roddis, ARKive Species Text Author


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