Mar 6

As you may be aware, not only is this week the 16th meeting of the Conference of the Parties of CITES, it is also Climate Week in the UK. The biggest climate change campaign in Britain, Climate Week aims to inspire us to create a more sustainable future through a range of activities.

Climate week logo

Throughout the course of the week schools, businesses, charities, councils and many other organisations will run over 3,000 events attended by around half a million people interested in finding out more about the future of climate change and what we can do to safeguard against its impacts.

With such a wide range of events on offer there is bound to be something for everyone so do try to attend if you can. Not only will it be informative, by the sounds of it you will also have a lot of fun. Activities include test driving electric vehicles, growing your own food in community allotments, a green building show with a Climate Week Pledge Wall, swapping clothes, books, toys and DVDs, developing a Community Energy Plan and even an event at Manchester United hosted by none other than England football coach Gary Neville. There are too many to list but more information can be found on the Climate Week website.

Polar bear jumping between ice floes

Polar bears are dependent on sea ice for its survival, but climate change is causing drastic reductions in the extent of ice cover

If you are unable to attend any events near you (or, alas there are no events in your proximity), we’ll do our best in this blog to give you an overview of climate change and why it is so important for us to safeguard our wildlife and environment against it.

About climate change

Without wanting to be too accusatory, there is no doubt that climate change is caused by man-made impacts on our planet. You may have heard it referred to as ‘global warming’, due to the steady rise in the Earth’s temperature that is occurring. Both terms are correct, however they actually refer to different phenomena. Climate change refers to the changes in climate which arise as a result of the increasing global temperature. These can include changes in precipitation patterns, increased incidence of drought, heat waves and other extreme weather conditions. In essence, global warming does not mean that we will all have increasingly warmer weather; the planet’s steadily rising temperature will be associated with changes across the world in climate pattern, and more extreme and unpredictable weather. Some places may well become hotter, but some will become colder, and others wetter or drier.

Atlantic krill

Antarctic krill die due to ocean acidification

These changes in climate may not sound like much, but they are creating huge problems on a global scale for both wildlife and people. The severity of storms and floods are increasing, and ruthless droughts are on the rise. The acidity of our seas is rising, affecting species such as coral and krill and destroying marine food chains that ultimately maintain the balance of life in the oceans. The lack of arctic ice in the summer creates a dire situation for polar bears as well as compounding global warming because the ice would usually serve to deflect sunlight away from the planet. The increased heat absorbed due to the absence of this natural deflection in turn causes permafrost to thaw, releasing trapped methane gas. This gas, along with carbon dioxide released by the process of deforestation and the warming oceans both serve to increase what is known as the greenhouse effect; some gases trap and retain the sun’s heat giving rise to this phenomenon.

Hawksbill turtle

Rising sea levels could wash away hawksbill turtle nests and decrease nesting habitat

As we can see, this process is not pretty, and we’ve only scratched at the surface of what is happening in this blog. Mass extinction of wildlife is predicted in the near future, including species such as polar bears and emperor penguins that will lose their habitat to melting ice and rising sea levels. Colourful corals such as the Acanthastrea coral will die as a result of ocean acidification. Also affected are species that live and breed on low-lying remote islands, for example marine turtles like the giant South American, hawksbill and leatherback turtles. There are too many to name here, but you can check out more species that will be affected by climate change on ARKive.

Staghorn coral

Climate change is already having measurable impacts on coral reefs worldwide


So, even if it’s just spreading the word on climate change, will you do your bit this Climate Week?

Find out more about climate change, the species it affects and what we can do to mitigate the effects on our Climate Change topic page.

Download Climate Week resources from the Climate Week website.

Kaz Armour, ARKive Text Author

Feb 28

The leatherback turtle is disappearing from its most important nesting sites in the western Pacific, according to a new study.

Photo of female leatherback turtle at nesting site on beach

Female leatherback turtle on nesting beach

The study found that the number of leatherback turtle nests in the Bird’s Head Peninsula of New Guinea has dropped by a staggering 78% in the last 30 years. These beaches account for three-quarters of the western Pacific’s nesting leatherback turtles, meaning this decline could have serious consequences for the future of the species in the Pacific Ocean.

Sea turtles have been around about 100 million years and survived the extinction of the dinosaurs but are struggling to survive the impact of humans,” said Thane Wibbels, one of the researchers.

Photo of fishermen with dead, captured leatherback turtle

Fishermen holding a dead, captured leatherback turtle

Leatherback threats

The leatherback turtle is the largest of the world’s turtles, and is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Like all sea turtles, this species faces a range of threats, including entanglement in fishing gear, boat strikes, harvesting of its eggs by humans, and predation of its eggs by feral dogs and pigs. In addition, the leatherback turtle also accidentally consumes plastic bags, mistaking them for its jellyfish prey.

Climate change is also a serious threat to the leatherback turtle. Rising sea levels and increasingly frequent and violent storms may erode nesting beaches and destroy nests, while changing ocean currents are likely to affect the turtle’s prey.

Photo of feral dogs digging up leatherback turtle eggs

Feral dogs are a threat to leatherback turtles, digging up and eating their eggs

The gender of leatherback turtle hatchlings is determined by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated, so warmer sand is likely to produce more females, skewing the species’ sex ratio. In addition, warmer temperatures have been known to cause abnormalities in hatchlings, and to affect the health and development of the young turtles.

In comparison to the Atlantic Ocean, where several nesting populations of leatherback turtles have increased in recent years, the status of the species in other oceans is of greater concern.

The leatherback is one of the most intriguing animals in nature, and we are watching it head towards extinction in front of our eyes,” said Wibbels.

Leatherback conservation

Conservationists have begun programmes to move leatherback turtle nests to more sheltered and shaded areas, where the eggs will be cooler, in the hope of increasing the success rate of hatchlings.

Photo of leatherback turtle hatchling

Leatherback turtle hatchlings face many perils, and very few survive to adulthood

The leatherback turtle is legally protected throughout most of its range, and a variety of other conservation measures are underway to help save this impressive marine reptile. For example, the attachment of Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) to fishing nets to reduce bycatch of turtles has been recommended.

However, much still needs to be done to save this marine giant. According to the researchers, a range of conservation measures need to be implemented at nesting beaches and in national and international waters if the decline of the Pacific’s last remaining leatherback stronghold is to be reversed.


Read more on this story at Mongabay – Leatherback sea turtles suffer 78 percent decline at critical nesting sites in Pacific.

Read about our recent Twitter turtle takeover.

View photos and videos of turtles on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive text author

Feb 27

Everybody loves polar bears – don’t they? Today is International Polar Bear Day, a chance for us all to celebrate this magnificent species and do our bit to help them.

Polar bears on thin ice

Polar bears might look big and tough but with their arctic habitat disappearing fast, the future of the world’s largest land carnivore is in our hands. Climate change is the biggest threat facing polar bears, as they depend on sea ice for hunting and breeding grounds and as the ice retreats, they must increasingly travel longer, more challenging distances across open water.

Polar bear moving over thin ice and swimming between ice floes

Video of polar bear moving over thin ice and swimming between ice floes

We can all play a part in reducing the threats to polar bears. Today, Polar Bear International is encouraging us all to do our bit to reduce our carbon footprint. You can take part in their challenge to turn your thermostat down (or up) a few degrees (depending on where you live), lowering your carbon emissions and helping  polar bears today and everyday .

Share your love for polar bears

We’re celebrating polar bear day across all our social channels – why not join in and help us to raise the profile of polar bears.

Get creative with our caption contest!

Can you think of a witty or fun caption for this polar bear photo?

Photo of  polar bear asleep in snow

Our polar bear-loving Twitter followers have already come up with these gems:


“Delilah was so relaxed during her Yoga session, she didn’t notice all the other girls had left for lunch already…”


Yeah Baby !!! thats reeelaxed

Can you do better? Tweet your captions, post them on Facebook or email us! We’ll choose and share our favourite tomorrow!


Show your support for polar bears, by joining in with our campaign to become a polar bear for the day – simply add this polar bear badge to your Facebook and Twitter profiles.

Feb 21

Turtles took over @ARKive’s Twitter account yesterday when turtle expert Professor Brendan Godley answered your burning questions about sea turtles. We loved Brendan’s guest blogs about his turtle research and leatherback turtles, so we were delighted when he offered to take time out of his busy research schedule on Ascension Island to tweet about turtles (in temperatures of 35 °C).

And Brendan wasn’t just feeling the heat on Ascension, but also on our Twitter stream. You tweeted some tricky questions to test his expertise, but we think you’ll agree that he came up turtle trumps! Here are just some of the #turtletweet highlights:

Photo of female flatback turtle digging nest

Female flatback turtle digging nest

Turtles on Ascension

@JellicleKat You’re out on Ascension Island at the moment…how long is the nesting season, and how many females nest there? #turtletweet

In the 1930s it was down to a few hundred but now about 5000 per year. 6 month season. #turtletweet

@inthefieldnews  Sea turtles return to the same beach where they hatched as juveniles to breed…but where do they go in between?

They go to one or more foraging areas that can be many thousands of miles. eg here on Ascension its Brazil #turtletweet

Top Turtle Facts

@eldenney: what’s your most interesting turtle fact? Thanks! #turtletweet

The fact that green turtles can rest at the bottom of the Mediterrannean sea for as long as 10.5 hours #turtletweet

@eldenney Cool! I can’t stay underwater for much more than 30 secs! Green turtles are impressive #turtletweet

Photo of green turtle with turtle barnacles

Green turtle with turtle barnacles on its shell

@clairecjl: Hi Brendan, I was wondering how long it takes leatherbacks to reach full size? #turtletweet

This is still debated, with work to be done but anywhere between 10 and 20 years seem the best estimates to date. #turtletweet

What’s the difference between a turtle and a terrapin?

@lillashaw Hi Brendan, we were debating this in the office the other day… What’s the difference between a turtle and terrapin? #turtletweet

Its semantics N america everything can be a turtle, in UK turtle is sea, terrapin is freshwater, tortoise on land. #turtletweet

Turtles and fishing

@Jess_Cripps Do you think more could be done by fisheries to reduce the bycatch of turtles in their equipment? #turtletweet

I do. Much has been done already TEDS (trawlers), Circle hooks (longlines) and these can be improved #turtletweet

One of the great ongoing challenges is that of how to minimise bycatch in gillnets #turtletweet

Photo of a green turtle trapped in fishing net

Green turtle trapped in fishing net

Which species of turtles are thriving? Which are endangered?

RT @DanielsImage: @ARKive@BrendanGodley How many species of sea turtles are there? Are any thriving? #turtletweet

.@DanielsImage @BrendanGodley Big winners r Atlantic green turtles, ones struggling incl Pacific leatherbacks and hawksbills. #turtletweet

Photof of front on view of a hawksbill turtle

Hawksbill turtle

Why are turtles endangered?

@harrypurplmonky What has happened to make turtles endangered? #turtletweet

Exploited for meat and eggs for a long time &have started to recover where they r protected on beach and sea#turtletweet

Photo of green turtle shells, butchered alive for blood and meat

The shells of green turtles, butchered alive for blood and meat

.@inthefieldnews… what would you say is the biggest threat facing sea turtles worldwide?

as with all marine biodiversity; I would say it fishing followed by climate change #turtletweet

Climate Change

@Jess_Cripps: Do you think turtles will start to breed earlier in response to climate change? #turtletweet

Not yet but it will soon! In Cyprus they are already 90% female…will get worse with inc temps #turtletweet

@eldenney: poor boys! #turtletweet

Photo of Kemp's ridley turtle hatchlings

Kemp’s ridley turtle hatchlings

Plastic Pollution

@Wildlife_Jason: What would you say is the worst problem for #turtles caused by #plasticpollution in our oceans?

“Turtles, partic babies & all leatherbacks eat it..less of a problem than fisheries though” via @BrendanGodley #turtletweet

Photo of green turtle suffocating on plastic bag

Green turtle suffocating on plastic bag

Turtles on film

@WildscreenFest: What part does wildlife filmmaking has to play in #turtle conservation? #turtletweet

@Wildlife_Film: What did you think of the footage of baby green turtles in @BBCNature #Africa?… #turtletweet

As seen on recent #Africa, there is clearly a role. MT are emblomatic #turtletweet

@Podgeosaurus: When filming do you think crews should aid baby turtles, or stay hands off? #turtletweet

Difficult one; up to individs. they shouldnt do is make things worse by releasing in daylight or hold hatchlings back#turtletweet

@lauriebelch why do some populations of turtles hatch in the day when it seems that predation risk is much higher#turtletweet

.@ARKive @lauriebelch very few do, but for obvious reasons we see more of it on film. More starlight cameras needed. #turtletweet

How can we help turtles?

@eldenney: so is there anything we can do to help turtles? #turtletweet

think about seafood choices, climate change and your role, get involved or help those who are.#turtletweet

@DanielsImage: Our support $ only go so far. Are there any organizations to support turtles you favor? #turtletweet

If I was to plump for one I would choose @seaturtle .org which is a one man show, no overheads and has transformed the field

@dodger_wake Some may not like it can we not ‘farm’ the endangered turtles to allow survival rates for eggs to raise then release

It’s done in the Cayman Islands for over 40 years, adults are now returning that were released #turtletweet

Cute or shocking photos?

@wild_photos: Our question for @ARKive’s#turtletweet! What do you think is more powerful in conservation: cute turtle images or ones showing turtle loss?

.@colaciregui @wild_photos @KACHUGABUT pictures of baby turtles always draws a gasp from the crowd! :)

Photo of young hawksbill turtle caught in a fishing net

Young hawksbill turtle caught in a fishing net

Turtle thanks!

@harrypurplmonky Wow what a #turtletweet! TY @ARKive & @brendangodley Harry’s learned so much about turtles & conservation!…

@Wildlife_Jason @BrendanGodley @ARKive Thanks for an informative #turtletweet time! :)


We’d like to join our followers in thanking Professor Brendan Godley for his turtle-takeover – informative, thought-provoking, and turtle-tastic!

Get regular updates from Brendan by following him on Twitter @brendangodley, and check out his recommended top tweeters: @UoExeterCEC, @EcoSoc_Tremough, @LifeNatureMag and @BioBlitzTremou.

Would you like to see more twitter takeovers? What topics would you be interested in? Follow @ARKive and let us know!

Sep 12

Alaska’s sea otters are helping to combat ocean acidification by preying on sea urchins which, if left unchecked, could be detrimental to the health of the oceans, according to a new study.

Sea otter image

Sea otter grooming among kelp

Climate-friendly lunch

By preying on sea urchins that feed on underwater kelp beds, sea otters are stemming the accumulation of acidic carbon dioxide in Alaska’s waters. When absorbed into the ocean, atmospheric carbon dioxide increases water acidity levels, a phenomenon known as ‘ocean acidification’, which can be harmful to marine environments. Kelp beds are important components of marine ecosystems, as they absorb oceanic carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, and produce oxygen in its place.

According to a new study published in a recent issue of Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, otter-protected kelp beds absorb approximately 12 times as much carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis as thinned-out kelp beds. By eating sea urchins, otters are providing the kelp forests with a chance to grow and help reduce ocean acidification.

Based on prices used in the European Carbon Exchange, the study reports that it would cost between $205 million and $408 million to offset the carbon that urchin-eating sea otters are enabling kelp beds to absorb.

Sea otter feeding image

Sea otter feeding on red sea urchin

Cute and beneficial

Co-author Jim Estes said that he hopes the study, which relied on data collected over a 40-year period between British Columbia, Canada, and Alaska’s Aleutian Islands, would help people to understand the importance of sea otters and the far-reaching benefits they provide.

On the one side, people like sea otters because they’re fuzzy, cool things. On the other side, a lot of people hate them,” said Mr Estes, a biologist and sea otter expert at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He went on to explain that fishermen, including shellfish harvesters, are in direct competition with sea otters, and are notoriously hostile towards the charismatic marine mammals. However, Mr Estes pointed out that by preserving kelp forests, sea otters are actually providing a service to fishermen, as kelp beds are an important habitat for many fish species.

Sea otter pair image

Sea otter pair anchored in kelp

A species under threat

Victims of a commercial harvest, sea otters were once hunted to the brink of extinction, until a treaty in 1911 ended the commercial hunt and numbers began to increase. Yet according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the species is still not out of the woods. The sea otter population from Kodiak, Alaska, to the western Aleutian Islands has dropped sharply in size in recent years, potentially declining as much as 67% since the mid-1980s. In 2005, the western Alaska sea otter population was listed as ‘threatened’ under the Endangered Species Act.

Oil spills and other human-related impacts have also had a negative effect on sea otter numbers, but many scientists studying Alaska’s populations believe that predation by killer whales is currently the main reason for declines. Steller’s sea lions and seals, key prey species for killer whales, have become scarce, leading the whales to target sea otters.


Read more on this story at The Telegraph – Sea otters ‘helping combat ocean acidification’.

Find out more about sea otters on ARKive.

Learn more about sea otters and their conservation at Monterey Bay Aquarium and at Friends of the Sea Otter.


Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Species Text Author


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