May 10
Spoon-billed sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus)

Spoon-billed sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus)

Species: Spoon-billed sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus)

Status: Critically Endangered (CR)

Interesting Fact: There are thought to be fewer than 100 spoon-billed sandpiper pairs remaining in the wild, and it is predicted that this species could go extinct within the next decade if urgent conservation action is not taken.

The spoon-billed sandpiper is a striking little bird with a distinctive spoon-shaped bill, as its common name suggests. This unusual bill is used to probe for small invertebrates in low vegetation, wet meadows and water, or even within muddy sand. A strongly territorial species, the spoon-billed sandpiper breeds in coastal areas with sand and sparse vegetation, and its scattered breeding range extends from the Chukotsk peninsula to the Kamchatka peninsula in north-eastern Russia. This species has very particular habitat requirements, choosing its nesting sites carefully, and it always breeds within six kilometres of the sea. A migratory bird, the spoon-billed sandpiper flies to overwinter in south and Southeast Asia where it can be found on mudflats and saltpans.

Habitat loss is currently the principal threat to the spoon-billed sandpiper, posing a particularly high risk as this species has such a small population, high nest fidelity, and extremely specific habitat requirements. Throughout this bird’s migratory and wintering ranges, tidal mudflats are being reclaimed for industry or aquaculture and are becoming increasingly polluted. Several important staging areas for the species have already been reclaimed, and many more are under serious threat of reclamation in the near future. Climate change and human disturbance have also altered the spoon-billed sandpiper’s habitat, while egg collection, hunting and accidental capture in nets intended for other wader species directly affect the population and its ability to regenerate.

The spoon-billed sandpiper is listed on both Appendix I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species, meaning that this threatened species would benefit from international agreements and cooperation to ensure its future survival. While the spoon-billed sandpiper is protected in several areas throughout its range, including the Moroshechnaya Wetlands and several other local wildlife refuges in Russia, China, India and Vietnam, it would benefit from enforced legal protection wherever it is present. In addition, preventing the reclamation of intertidal mudflats along the spoon-billed sandpiper’s entire migration route is of utmost importance.

Conservation organisations and individuals have worked with local communities to help reduce the hunting pressure on this species, and various advocacy activities have been carried out, including two training workshops in schools in China, to raise awareness of the plight of the spoon-billed sandpiper. A special Task Force has been set up, charged with implementing an action plan to save this migratory species, and a captive breeding and rearing programme is underway. It is essential that international cooperation is achieved to monitor and conserve the spoon-billed sandpiper throughout its range and bring it back from the brink of extinction.

See images and videos of the spoon-billed sandpiper on ARKive.

Find out more about spoon-billed sandpiper conservation.

Celebrate World Migratory Bird Day and find out more about the need to protect these species and their habitats.

Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

May 3

Carbonell’s wall lizard (Podarcis carbonelli)

Species: Carbonell’s wall lizard (Podarcis carbonelli)

Status: Endangered (EN)

Interesting Fact: Until 2002 it was thought that Carbonell’s wall lizard was a subspecies of Bocage’s wall lizard (Podarcis bocagei).

More information: Carbonell’s wall lizard is a small, compact lizard that is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, where it lives in forests and forest clearings in highly fragmented populations. Ordinarily this lizard is brown or black, but during the breeding season the male has bright green jagged-edged stripes on its upper side and vivid green sides. Both the male and female Carbonell’s wall lizard are usually whitish on the belly, although they may sometimes be slightly pink or red. This reptile forages on the ground for a wide variety of arthropod prey, including beetles and spiders.

Several threats to Carbonell’s wall lizard have been identified, including habitat degradation and loss which has occurred in many areas throughout its range due to forest fires, development for tourism and the establishment of pine wood plantations. The southernmost island-dwelling populations of Carbonell’s wall lizard are thought to be at risk from the negative effects of climate change, and hybridisation between this species and Bocage’s wall lizard threatens the population in the north.

Many areas of this species’ range are protected, including the Coto Doñana National Park in Spain. More research into the threats facing Carbonell’s wall lizard would facilitate the creation of appropriate conservation measures and highlight how urgently these measures are required.

Find out more about Carbonell’s wall lizard and other species found in European forests

See images of Carbonell’s wall lizard on ARKive

Find out more about other wall lizard species

Ben Hogan, Wildscreen ARKive PIPS Intern

Apr 26
São Tomé giant treefrog (Hyperolius thomensis)

São Tomé giant treefrog (Hyperolius thomensis)

Species: São Tomé giant treefrog (Hyperolius thomensis)

Status: Endangered (EN)

Interesting Fact: Like many other Hyperolius species, the São Tomé giant treefrog breeds in standing water, but instead of using ponds, this remarkable amphibian lays its eggs in water-filled holes in trees.

As its name suggests, the beautifully coloured São Tomé giant treefrog is endemic to the island of São Tomé, 255 kilometres off the coast of Gabon, and is the largest member of the genus Hyperolius. This amphibian presents a classic example of ‘island gigantism’, whereby certain colonisers on islands tend to evolve to become larger than their mainland relatives. The upperparts of the São Tomé giant treefrog are a uniform green to blue-green colour, while the underside is much more brightly coloured with a marbled pattern of orange, white and black. Like other similar species, this treefrog has expanded toe pads and long legs which make it an adept climber.

There is little information available on the current threats to the São Tomé giant treefrog, but the loss of its forest habitat is thought to have had a severe impact on this species. Forest clearance began on São Tomé in the late 15th century to make way for the cultivation of sugar cane, and dramatically accelerated in the 1800s as a result of the production of coffee and cocoa. At one stage in the early 20th century, São Tomé was the world’s largest producer of cocoa, with around 42 percent of the island being devoted to its production. Deforestation rates have since slowed considerably, but the São Tomé giant treefrog is now restricted to the remnants of original primary forest on the island at elevations above 800 metres.

There are currently no known specific conservation measures in place for the São Tomé giant treefrog. However, it may receive a certain level of protection as a result of its occurrence in Obo National Park.

See images of the São Tomé giant treefrog on ARKive

Find out more about amphibian conservation on ARKive

Get involved in amphibian conservation and celebrate Save the Frogs Day today!

Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

Apr 19

Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis)

Species: Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis)

Status: Critically Endangered (CR)

Interesting Fact: The Vancouver Island marmot is thought to be one of the rarest mammals in North America, with a wild population of fewer than 100 individuals.

More information: The endemic Vancouver Island marmot is a stocky rodent that has a chestnut-brown pelage with a cream-coloured area around its nose and mouth. As with all marmots, the Vancouver Island marmot lives in family groups that usually contain one male, two females and the juveniles and young produced that year. The families occupy complex underground burrow systems in which they hibernate between the end of September and early May, surviving by using up the fat reserves that are built up throughout the summer.

Logging activities and weather fluctuations within the habitat of the Vancouver Island marmot are thought to have caused population declines. Additionally, the local deer population has recently increased and their presence is known to increase the amount of predators in an area which may also take Vancouver Island marmots.

The Vancouver Island marmot is legally protected through its listing on the British Columbia Wildlife Act. A recovery plan was established in 1988 in an attempt to save this species from the brink of extinction, and a captive breeding programme is now in place, with reintroductions of captive-bred individuals planned for the future.

See images of the Vancouver Island marmot on ARKive

Find out more about Vancouver Island and other islands of the North Pacific

Find out more about other marmot species

Hannah Mulvany, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

Apr 12
Doria's tree kangaroo image

Doria’s tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus)

Species: Doria’s tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus)

Status: Vulnerable (VU)

Interesting Fact: Doria’s tree kangaroo is the heaviest tree-dwelling marsupial in the world, weighing as much as 20 kilograms, and is capable of jumping down to the ground from a height of up to 18 metres without injury.

Despite its appearance and arboreal nature, Doria’s tree kangaroo is closely related to the well-known ground kangaroos that can be seen across Australian plains, and has similar strongly developed hindquarters and a long, well-furred tail. Unlike its Australian relatives, Doria’s tree kangaroo is endemic to the island of New Guinea, where it is found in the central highlands. This species has fairly long fur, which interestingly grows in a reverse direction on the back and neck. This is presumably to stop water running down its face, as this marsupial tends to sit with its head lower than its shoulders.

While Doria’s tree kangaroo is thought to still be common in some areas of its range, intense and consistent hunting pressure for its meat has led to the local extinction of many populations of this species. In the past, hunting of this prized game species by local people may have been sustainable, but advances in the development of hunting equipment, combined with a rising human population, has led to an increase in hunting. Habitat loss and degradation of forested areas as a result of exploitation for timber poses an additional threat to Doria’s tree kangaroo.

Doria’s tree kangaroo is legally protected in the Indonesian part of New Guinea. However, this is not yet the case in Papua New Guinea, and the protection of vital forest habitat in this region has been recommended to ensure the future survival of this intriguing marsupial. In addition, measures to control or restrict traditional hunting have been suggested as key factors in the conservation of this threatened species.

See images and videos of Doria’s tree kangaroo on ARKive.

Find out more about New Guinea and other South Pacific islands.

Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

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