Feb 1

We’ve asked conservation organisations around the world to nominate a species that they believe to be overlooked, underappreciated and unloved, and tell us why they think that they deserve a fair share of the limelight, this Valentine’s Day.

Each nominee’s story is featured on the Arkive blog with information on the species, what makes them so special, the conservation organisation that nominated them and how they are working to save them from extinction.

Click the ‘unloved species’ tag above to see all of the nominations and their blogs.

Once you have perused the blogs you can vote for your favourite to help get them into the top ten unloved species and get them the recognition that they truly deserve! Share your favourite with others using the #LoveSpecies hashtag on Twitter and Facebook and tell them why they should vote for them too. Voting closes on February 14th at 23:59 PST (07:59 GMT).

Join us and our conservation partners in celebrating and raising awareness for some of the world’s most unloved species this Valentine’s Day!

Species: Coho salmon

Nominated by: Turtle Island Restoration Network

Conservation status: Federally and State Endangered since 2002

Why do you love it? Coho salmon are the keystone species to all Pacific forests! They fertilise forests, feed many animals, including young salmon. If you have salmon thriving in your creek, then you know your watershed is healthy!

What are the threats to the Central California coho salmon? Streamside development, urbanisation (and stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces), dams, water diversions, invasive species, logging, mining, commercial fishing, ocean acidification, climate change, other pollution sources.

What are you doing to save it? Turtle Island Restoration Network’s Salmon Protection And Watershed Network (SPAWN) program works to protect the Endangered coho salmon by advocating for the protection of their stream habitat by restricting development near streams; working with public and private landowners to implement stream habitat restoration projects; conducting coho population monitoring; training naturalists to lead public tours to watch coho spawn, and hosting service-learning opportunities for schools, families, corporate groups, etc.

Find out more about the Turtle Island Restoration Network’s SPAWN project

Find out more about the Turtle Island Restoration Network

Discover other species in the Salmonidae family on Arkive

 

VOTE NOW!

 

Nov 19

The latest update to The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species highlights the loss of sea ice habitat due to climate warming as the single most important threat to the long-term survival of the polar bear.

The update also highlights habitat degradation as a main threat to many fungus species and over-fishing as the key driver of decline in marine bony fish. 

Polar bears on thin ice

The report, which is the most comprehensive assessment of sea ice and polar bear sub-population data to date, revealed that there is a high probability that the global polar bear population will decline by more than 30% over the next 35 to 40 years.

Based on the latest, most robust science, this assessment provides evidence that climate change will continue to seriously threaten polar bear survival in the future,” says Inger Andersen, IUCN Director General. “Climate change impacts go far beyond this iconic species, and present a threat our planet has never faced before. Governments meeting at the climate summit in Paris later this month will need to go all out to strike a deal strong enough to confront this unprecedented challenge.”

Recent studies show that the loss of Arctic sea ice has progressed faster than most climate models had predicted, with September sea ice extent declining at a linear rate of 14% per decade from 1979 through 2011. As polar bears rely on sea ice to access their prey, such as seals, an annual ice-free period of five months or more will cause extended fasting for the species, which is likely to lead to increased reproductive failure and starvation in some areas.

Polar bears are important to the livelihoods of Indigenous Peoples and, as apex predators, are essential to maintaining ecosystem balance in the Arctic region. Along with sea ice loss, other potential threats to the species include pollution, resource exploration and habitat change due to development. Oil development in the Arctic poses a wide range of threats, from oil spills to increased human-bear interaction.

Number of fungi on The IUCN Red List doubles

Twenty-nine species of fungi have been added to The IUCN Red List in this latest update, more than doubling current numbers. Fungi are an enormous group of organisms that are neither plants nor animals. They obtain nutrients through the absorption of decaying organic matter, recycling plant and animal waste into useful products.  The main threats affecting the species are habitat loss and degradation, mostly from changing land use practices.

Fungi are extremely important to humans as medicine and food and their conservation is vital for the health of the world’s ecosystems. Fungi have a symbiotic relationship with 80% of all plants and form a crucial part of the digestive system of ruminants such as sheep and cows.

Logging of the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) which is listed as Endangered, is major threat to the fungus Leptonia carnea which has now been listed as Vulnerable.

Marine bony fishes at risk of extinction in the East Central Atlantic and Greater Caribbean regions

The latest global assessment of the 1,400 marine bony fishes of the Eastern Central Atlantic – covering the area from Mauritania to Angola – shows that 3% are threatened with extinction. In the Caribbean, 1,340 species were assessed, and of these 5% are threatened with extinction, including the golden tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps) which is listed as Endangered.

The lionfish, which is an invasive species, is placing further pressure on marine bony fishes in the Caribbean.

The degradation of sensitive coastal habitats, pollution, overexploitation and destructive fishing practices are putting many species of marine bony fishes at risk of extinction.

Marine bony fishes are both ecologically and economically important, with the loss of these species posing a serious threat to food security and livelihoods of more than 340 million people in the regions assessed. The data from this latest assessment will be used to guide fisheries management and conservation priorities in the regions.

The IUCN Red List now includes 79,837 assessed species, of which 23,250 are threatened with extinction.

For more on the latest update visit The IUCN Red List website.

Learn more about climate change and ocean acidification on Arkive.

Jun 7

Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

Species: Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

Status: Endangered (EN)

Interesting Fact: The Atlantic bluefin tuna can swim at speeds of up to 72 kilometres per hour when pursuing its prey.

More information: The enormous Atlantic bluefin tuna can grow to lengths of 4.6 metres and weigh up to 684 kilograms. This fish species has two types of muscle, one for continuous long-distance swimming and the other for short, fast bursts of speed. This amazing adaptation means that individuals of this species are able to swim across the Atlantic Ocean in just 60 days. Although the Atlantic bluefin tuna is generally found swimming in mixed species schools close to the surface of the water, it is capable of diving to depths of up to 1,000 metres when chasing prey. Another fascinating adaptation of the Thunnus genus is the blood exchange system known as the rete mirable which enables individuals to swim in water that is much to cold for other fish. The Atlantic bluefin tuna is a highly migratory species and has a naturally occurring magnetic mineral located in its head that helps with navigation to and from its spawning grounds.

The severe exploitation of the Atlantic bluefin tuna has led to the drastic decline of every known population, particularly in the North Atlantic Ocean. Despite quotas being in place to ensure sustainable numbers are removed from the population, the limits are frequently not respected and unless the legal levels are suitably enforced, it is predicted that some Atlantic bluefin tuna stocks will collapse. The western Atlantic stock may have already collapsed and is now in grave danger of extinction due to overfishing. In the Mediterranean, tuna ranching poses the greatest threat to this species. Individuals are captured alive and taken to a ranch where they are fattened before being sold. Since 1998, catch limits have been in place and in 2006 the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) established a 15 year recovery plan for the Atlantic bluefin tuna. The plan includes stricter catch limits and closing certain fisheries at specific times of the year to allow the local stocks to recover.

Find out more about Atlantic tuna conservation: International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT).

See images and videos of the Atlantic bluefin tuna on ARKive.

Hannah Mulvany, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer.

May 24

Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii)

Species: Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii)

Status: Critically Endangered (CR)

Interesting Fact: The Russian sturgeon can reach lengths of nearly two and a half metres.

More information: The Russian sturgeon belongs to an ancient and unique group of fish, relics from the time of the dinosaurs. This prehistoric giant was formerly found in the Black, Azov, and Caspian Seas in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, as well as the deep sections of fast-flowing rivers, such as the Volga, Danube, and Ural Rivers. Populations of this species are now mostly found in the lower reaches of these river systems and along coastlines.

The male Russian sturgeon does not reproduce until it is between 8 and 13 years old and only do so every 2 or 3 years, while the female does not reach sexual maturity until it is 10 to 16 years old and then only reproduces every 4 to 6 years. There are two distinct forms of this fish species, the anadromous type which migrates up rivers from the sea to spawn and the freshwater form which remains in its freshwater habitat to spawn, although this form is now thought to be extinct. For the anadromous type, there are two separate migrations, one in spring when spawning occurs in the lower levels of the river and one in autumn when individuals migrate into freshwater where they spend the winter before spawning upstream the following spring.

Vast areas of the Russian sturgeon’s spawning grounds have been lost due to damming and exploitation. Dam construction is highly detrimental to this and other migratory fish species, as the usual migration routes to its spawning grounds are blocked, meaning that individuals either do not reproduce, or spawn in unsafe areas. Pollution in the Caspian and Black Sea basins is causing hormonal imbalances in this species and subsequently a greater number of hermaphroditic, infertile individuals are found in these areas.

The Russian sturgeon was once very important commercially, and its caviar was one of the most sought after of any species. Illegal fishing still continues, despite legal catch quotas being in place, with the illegal catch thought to far surpass the legally set limits. The Russian sturgeon is unprotected in many areas throughout its range and the absence of a strict monitoring system makes the control of fishing very difficult. Despite restocking efforts, the creation of artificial spawning grounds, and the introduction of fish lifts to help individuals to get around dams, the population is still in decline and over the last 15 years, global catches have dropped by 98 percent. As a slowly maturing species, it does not have the ability to recover from overexploitation, especially without complete cessation of fishing.

Celebrate World Fish Migration Day and find out more about why we need to protect these species and their habitats.

Find out more about sturgeon conservation.

See images of the Russian sturgeon on ARKive.

Hannah Mulvany, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

May 17
Scalloped hammerhead

Scalloped hammerhead

Species: Scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini)

Status: Endangered (EN)

Interesting Fact: The hammer-shaped head of the scalloped hammerhead is thought to be a mechanism to spread out the ampullae of Lorenzini which are sensory organs that detect electric currents, chemicals and temperature changes.

More information: The scalloped hammerhead can be distinguished from other hammerhead shark species by the ‘scalloped’ front edge of its head. This species has a relatively slim body and is counter-shaded, with a brown-grey or bronze upperside and a white underside. This relatively large shark can grow up to lengths of 4.3 metres and can weigh up to 152 kilograms. Fish, cephalopods, lobsters, shrimp, crabs, other sharks and rays make up the diet of this species, and prey items are usually eaten whole. Generally occurring in the warm temperate and tropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans over continental shelves, the scalloped hammerhead is also known to enter closed bays and estuaries and generally swims between depths of 0 and 275 metres.

Occasionally caught as bycatch by longline fisheries, the scalloped hammerhead is also caught commercially. Various products are made from the body parts of sharks, including shark fin soup from the fins and vitamins from the liver, as well as the meat which is sold for human consumption. Certain parts of this shark’s range are protected, including the area around Melpelo in Colombia, and there are plans to extend the legal protection to other areas. There are no other known conservation measures currently in place for this Endangered species.

Find out more about marine conservation at the Save Our Seas Foundation and Project AWARE.

Find out more about shark conservation at Bite Back and the Shark Trust.

See images and videos of the scalloped hammerhead on ARKive.

Hannah Mulvany, ARKive Content and Outreach Officer

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