Nov 9
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Endangered Species of the Week: Floreana coral

Floreana coral

Floreana coral (Tubastraea floreana)

Species: Floreana coral (Tubastraea floreana)

Status: Critically Endangered (CR)

Interesting Fact: The polyps of Floreana coral are bright pink in the water, and dark red-black when dry.

More information:

Found in the Galápagos, Floreana coral is a scleractinian coral, which means that it is a hard coral with a limestone skeleton.  Floreana coral is known as an ‘azooxanthellate’ coral, as this species does not have zooxanthellae, the algae that live inside the tissues of some corals and provide the corals with food. Corals without zooxanthellae instead feed on zooplankton, capturing these tiny aquatic animals in their outstretched tentacles. Floreana coral can be found on ledges, overhangs and the ceilings of caves, at depths of between 2 and 46 metres.

Now classified as Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List, and listed on Appendix II of CITES, the Floreana coral is thought to have once been fairly widespread around the Galápagos Islands. However, since the El Niño event of 1982-1983, this coral has only been seen at Cousins Rocks and Gardner Islet. Despite searches specifically for this species, the Floreana coral has not been seen at Cousins Rocks since 2001. This indicates that any alterations to the water temperatures surrounding the Galápagos Islands are likely to threaten this coral and cause further mortality.

The unique biodiversity of the Galápagos Islands and the surrounding waters is recognised and valued, and the region is protected by being designated a Marine Reserve and World Heritage Site. Any international trade involving the Floreana coral is carefully regulated thanks to CITES. Unfortunately, neither of these measures protects this Critically Endangered coral from the threats of natural, or man-induced, climate change.

 

Find out more about the Floreana coral at Earth’s Endangered Species, and more about the Galápagos Islands at the Charles Darwin Foundation.

See images of the Floreana coral on ARKive.

 

Phoebe Shaw Stewart, ARKive Text Author

 

Jun 25
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In the News: Lonesome George, the last Pinta giant tortoise dies

Lonesome George, a Galapagos giant tortoise believed to be the last of his subspecies, has died, according to Galapagos National Park officials.

Photo of male Abingdon Island tortoise - Lonesome George - resting

“Lonesome George”, the last of his subspecies

First seen by a Hungarian scientist on the Galapagos island of Pinta, or Abingdon, in 1972, Lonesome George became a symbol of the Galapagos Islands. With no other known individuals of his subspecies left, George had the unfortunate distinction of being considered the rarest animal in the world.

Giant tortoise declines

Galapagos giant tortoises were once so numerous that Spanish explorers named the Galapagos archipelago after them. However, these large reptiles were hunted by sailors and fishermen for their meat and oil, and more recently have suffered habitat loss and competition due to introduced goats and cattle. Introduced predators such as cats, dogs and rats also predate the more vulnerable juveniles.

Photo of Galapagos giant tortoise hatchling breaking out of shell

Young Galapagos giant tortoises are vulnerable to introduced predators such as cats and rats

There are a number of different subspecies of Galapagos giant tortoise, and the differences in appearance between the tortoises from different islands were among the features that helped Charles Darwin develop his theory of evolution.

Overall, around 20,000 giant tortoises are thought to now remain on the Galapagos Islands, but three subspecies have already become extinct or are extinct in the wild.

Photo of an old male Duncan Island tortoise in typical habitat

Duncan Island tortoise. Some Galapagos giant tortoise subspecies have “saddleback” shells, while in others the shell is more domed.

Failed breeding attempts

Despite efforts by conservationists to breed George with females from closely related giant tortoise subspecies, he sadly failed to reproduce successfully. With his death, the Pinta Island subspecies, also known as the Abingdon giant tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra abingdoni), is the latest giant tortoise subspecies to become extinct.

Lonesome George was estimated to be around 100 years old at his death, although Galapagos giant tortoises can potentially live up to 150 years or more. Park officials are due to carry out a post-mortem to determine the cause of his death.

Photo of male Abingdon Island tortoise - Lonesome George - feeding

Lonesome George feeding

Conservation efforts

Fortunately, conservation efforts are underway to save other Galapagos giant tortoise subspecies. For example, a programme running since the 1970s raises hatchlings in captivity until they are large and robust enough not to succumb to predators in the wild.

This programme has shown encouraging success, increasing the population of the Critically Endangered Hood Island tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra hoodensis) from just 13 individuals in the 1970s to over 1,000 in the wild today.

Read more about Lonesome George at BBC – Last Pinta giant tortoise Lonesome George dies.

View photos and videos of the Galapagos giant tortoise on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Species Text Author

Jan 10
Share 'In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive' on Delicious Share 'In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive' on Digg Share 'In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive' on Facebook Share 'In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive' on reddit Share 'In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive' on StumbleUpon Share 'In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive' on Email Share 'In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive' on Print Friendly

In the News: ‘Extinct’ giant tortoise may still be alive

A species of Galapagos giant tortoise believed extinct for over 150 years may still be alive, according to scientists.

Photo of Volcan Alcedo tortoise walking

A Volcan Alcedo tortoise (Chelonoidis vandenburghi), a relative of the ‘extinct’ giant tortoise from Floreana

The species, Chelonoidis elephantopus, was once found on the island of Floreana in the Galapagos, but was hunted to extinction by whalers who visited the Galapagos Islands during the 19th century.

However, a team of scientists from Yale University have now discovered hybrid tortoises which appear to have the ‘extinct’ species as one of their parents. The hybrids were found among a population of Volcan Wolf tortoises (Chelonoidis becki) living at the northern end of the island of Isabela, another of the Galapagos Islands.

Pure-bred individuals may still exist

After the hybrid tortoises were found, the team originally speculated that by careful cross-breeding over many generations, it might be possible to re-create the extinct giant tortoise species.

Photo of several Volcan Alcedo tortoise pairs mating in shallow pool

Volcan Alcedo tortoises mating

However, further expeditions to Isabela have found a number of individuals that appear, from a study of their genes, to have pure-bred C. elephantopus as one of their immediate parents. As some of the hybrids are only 15 years old, this suggests that their pure-bred parents may still be alive, particularly given that giant tortoises can live for over 100 years.

Unique island inhabitants

Giant tortoises are endemic to the Galapagos Islands, where they are likely to have originally arrived by floating from the shores of South America.

Photo of old male Duncan Island tortoise in typical habitat

Duncan Island tortoise (Chelonoidis duncanensis) reaching for food. The distinctive ‘saddleback’ shell of some Galapagos giant tortoises enables them to reach taller vegetation.

The distinct appearance and variety of shell shapes shown by giant tortoises on different islands helped inspire Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution – as populations on the different islands were relatively isolated from one another, they evolved in slightly different directions as they adapted to different conditions.

For example, C. elephantopus of Floreana Island has a distinctive saddleback-shaped shell, while species from neighbouring islands have a more dome-shaped shell.

Captive breeding

The scientists believe that the tortoises from Floreana Island were most likely transported to Isabela on whaling ships, and subsequently became established on the island.

Photo of young James Island tortoises at Charles Darwin research station

Young James Island tortoises (Chelonoidis darwini) at Charles Darwin Research Station. Captive breeding may be essential in ‘resurrecting’ the giant tortoises of Floreana Island.

Despite being the largest living tortoise species, giant tortoises can be surprisingly difficult to locate.

According to Dr Gisella Caccone, one of the scientists, “The landscape on Volcano Wolf is hard, the vegetation thick with lots of bushes and nooks, and the carapaces are translucent so you need a trained eye to see the shininess of the shell.”

However, if the suspected pure-bred individuals can be found, they could potentially form the basis of a captive breeding programme aimed at bringing back this unique reptile species.

Read more on this story at BBC News – ‘Extinct’ Galapagos tortoise may still exist.

Read the original article at Current Biology – Genetic rediscovery of an ‘extinct’ Galápagos giant tortoise species.

View photos and videos of Galapagos giant tortoise species on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Species Text Author

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