Apr 27

Save the Frogs DayToday marks the 5th annual ‘Save the Frogs Day’, an international event which focuses on raising awareness about the plight of the frog, encouraging conservation action and celebrating all things amphibian. In honour of this noble cause, we thought we would highlight some of our favourite weird and wonderful amphibians from around the world, and hopefully encourage you to get involved, spread the word about amphibian conservation and perhaps even host your own event. The ‘Save the Frogs’ website has some fantastic ideas for inspiration here, so what are you waiting for? Hop to it!

Titicaca water frog

Titicaca water frog photo

The largest truly aquatic frog, the Titicaca water frog can weigh up to 1 kg and is endemic to Lake Titicaca, which lies on the border between Peru and Bolivia. While its extremely loose skin gives it a bizarre appearance, the skin is very rich in capillaries, enabling the frog to remain underwater without having to surface for air. Unfortunately, the Titicaca water frog is under great threat as a result of over-collection for human consumption. It is blended with other ingredients to create a juice which local people misguidedly believe cures many ailments.

Gardiner’s tree frog

Gardiner’s tree frog photo

From one of the largest frogs to one of the smallest now, Gardiner’s tree frog. This diminutive amphibian is found in the Seychelles and grows to just 11 mm in length. Unlike most frogs, which must lay their eggs in water, this species lays them in small clumps on moist ground. Instead of hatching as tadpoles, the young then hatch as small, fully formed adults.

Dyeing poison frog

Dyeing poison frog photo

Perhaps one of the most beautiful of all frogs, the dyeing poison frog is famed for the alkaloid-based poison excreted from its skin. Its toxicity is obtained from its diet, which consists mainly of ants. Subsequently, in captivity the dyeing poison frog loses its toxicity as it cannot obtain these compounds through its captive diet.

Suriname toad

Suriname toad photo

A fascinating species from South America, the Suriname toad must surely take the prize for the most unusual reproductive methods in the animal kingdom. The male rolls the fertilised eggs onto the female’s back, after which the skin on her back closes around them. After an incubation period of three to four months the young emerge from her back as fully metamorphosed individuals. Cool or creepy? You decide!

Purple frog

Purple frog photo

Only discovered in 2003, the purple frog is the sole surviving member of an ancient group of amphibians that evolved around 130 million years ago. This strange-looking frog is adapted to a burrowing lifestyle, spending most of the year up to 3.7 metres underground and emerging for a few weeks to breed at the surface.

Rabb’s fringe-limbed treefrog

Rabb's fringe-limbed treefrog photo

Perhaps one of the saddest stories from the amphibian world, Rabb’s fringe-limbed treefrog was described as a new species as recently as 2008, but the arrival of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis in the only known population appears to have driven the species to extinction in the wild. As of early 2012, a single male remained in captivity, believed to be the very last of its kind anywhere in the world after the only other known individual, another captive male, was euthanised due to poor health.

Darwin’s frog

Darwin’s frog photo

Discovered by Charles Darwin, the unusual Darwin’s frog is another species with a rather strange method of reproduction. The male possesses a large vocal sac, but rather than producing a loud call, he uses it for an altogether different purpose. It is his job to guard the fertilised eggs, and after they have been developing for around 20 days he uses his tongue to pick them up and manoeuvre them into his vocal sac. The tadpoles hatch and metamorphose within his vocal sac, emerging from his mouth when their tails are reduced to stumps. Check out a video of tadpoles moving within a male’s vocal sac .

Get involved

Golden frog photoIf you’ve been inspired to do your bit for amphibian conservation we would love to hear what you are up to. Don’t forget that you can also vote for the golden frog in our current campaign to find the World’s Favourite Species and spread the love for frogs!

You can also check out our feature page on amphibian conservation and have a go at collecting uninfected mountain chickens in our Team WILD game!

Claire Lewis, ARKive Researcher

Apr 21

This weekend, a mixture of world class runners and 36,000 fundraisers will descend upon London to take part in this year’s London Marathon. To be able to run the 26.2 mile course a lot of training and endurance is required. To celebrate, here in the ARKive office we have put together a list of the top ten endurance animals:

The king of long distance

The monarch butterfly is renowned for its spectacular, long-distance migrations. It is the eastern North American populations which show the most remarkable migratory behaviour. The final summer generation undertake a mass southward migration from the summer breeding ground in North America to Mexico for the winter; covering distances of 3,000 miles at speeds of up to 80 miles per day! This incredible butterfly species has made the top 50 in the World’s favourite species competition. Visit the page to cast your vote for the monarch butterfly.

Athletic albatross

Albatrosses are renowned for being some of the most far-roaming seabirds in the world, with the Campbell albatross being particularly well known for making single, non-stop flights for up to 19 hours! When foraging, Campbell albatross may travel up to 2,000 kilometres away from the colony to find food, with trips lasting between 3 and 12 days.

Not leap frog but leap fish?

Outside of the breeding season Atlantic salmon are found at sea, roaming vast distances to search for food. After one or more years, Atlantic salmon return to their birthplace, in freshwater streams, to spawn. During this journey the Atlantic salmon can leap vertical distance of up to an amazing 12 feet, resulting in it gaining the nickname the king of fish!

Outstanding ostrich

The ostrich, the fastest runner of any birds, can reach up to 70 kilometres per hour in short sprints with strides of 3 to 5 metres in length! Not only does the ostrich have speed it also has high stamina being able to run at up to 50 kilometres per hour for 30 minutes or more! This would make the ostrich a real contender in any marathon!

I am turtley not getting lost

When green turtles reach sexual maturity they will migrate back to the beach where they hatched, to breed. This is not only a tremendous feat of navigation but also involves travelling very long distances. For some population of green turtles in Brazil this means travelling 2,250km to return back to the Ascension Islands to breed!

There is no terning back

The Arctic tern probably undertakes the longest migration of any bird, breeding in the Arctic and travelling to Antarctica for winter. This means that the Arctic tern sees more sunlight each year than any other animal, as they experience a ‘second summer’ by travelling south in winter. It makes all the hard work seem worth it!

A whaley long way to go

Humpback whales undertake yearly migrations of thousands of kilometres, from summer feeding grounds in polar regions to winter breeding grounds near the tropics. Humpback whales which feed south of Cape Horn undertake the longest known migration of any mammal, with their journey taking them all the way to the warm waters off Columbia and Costa Rica to breed. If this is not incredible enough, humpback whales do not feed during their whole migration or during their time at the breeding grounds. Does this impress you enough to make the humpback whale your favourite species? If so, cast your vote for the humpback whale here and check out its contenders!

Freeze a jolly good fellow

Breeding in Antarctica’s harsh winter, when temperatures drop to as low as minus 60ºC, and wind speeds reach up to 200 kilometres per hour requires some serious endurance! Each year Emperor penguins undertake this challenge to ensure that their chicks fledge in the late summer season. Adult penguins journey for upto 120 kilometres to reach their breeding colonies, in these harsh conditions. After six weeks the female will then return to feed whereas the male has to endure the rest of the winter incubating the egg. The emperor penguin has also successfully made it to the top 50, make it number one by voting for it today!

We will make it come rein or shine..

The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, undertakes the longest migration of any land mammal. Most reindeer populations will undertake seasonal migrations with the annual distance covered by some individuals being at least 5,000 kilometres. This migration also often includes swimming across rivers and fjords.

Size doesn’t matter

The ruby throated hummingbird is a migratory species which breeds in eastern North America and winter in Central America. Despite being only 9 centimetres in length the ruby throated hummingbird can make this migration across the Gulf of Mexico non-stop, a round trip of more than 1,600 kilometres!

If you can think of any other endurance species not on the list then do let us know!

Jemma Pealing, Media Researcher

Apr 12

Although it may not feel like it with all the cold weather we’ve been having recently, here in the UK we are well into spring and heading towards summer. As the temperatures begin to creep up, now is the perfect time to get out and about and start exploring the diverse range of habitats the UK has to offer. Being an island, the UK boasts over 6,000 kilometres of shoreline, and heading down to the seaside is a popular pastime for people of all ages. It is said that in the UK you are never more than about 70 miles from the sea, so why not make a day of it and visit one of the beautiful sandy beaches that our coastline has to offer?

Beach photo

Sandy beach at Three Crowns Bay on the Gower Peninsula, Wales

While sandy shores may not seem an obvious place to find wildlife, a wealth of invertebrate and fish species live below the sand, buried out of sight. If you are lucky, you may also spot seals hauled out on the beach, or shorebirds foraging for prey in the sand or among the debris of the strandline. Visitors to beaches such as Studland on Dorset’s Jurassic Coast could be treated to an even rarer sight, as sand lizards can be spotted here in the dunes and heathland which border the beach.

Sand lizard photo

Sand lizard feeding on prey

Studland photo

Sandstone cliffs and sandy beach at Studland Bay








Certain beaches are renowned for their bird life, such as Titchwell Marsh on the north Norfolk coast. Here you can see curlew sandpipers, avocets, redshank and many other waders, particularly in the summer and autumn. Looking further north, Balranald on the Outer Hebrides is another haven for a number of bird species, inlcuding  little terns which can be spotted fishing along the shore.

Curlew sandpiper photo

Curlew sandpipers feeding at sunrise

Of course, part of the fun of heading to the beach is spotting signs of invertebrate life, and I’m sure that like me, many of you spent hours of your childhood searching for shells and other treasures. If you fancy re-living your youth, or you’d like to introduce the next generation to the wonders that wash ashore, make sure you take along a copy of our beach treasure hunt activity next time you visit the seaside; a PDF version can be downloaded here.

Common whelk photo

Common whelk shell on the beach

Coastal sand dunes are typically formed as the wind blows sand into drifts which get trapped around plants such as marram grass, the roots of which help to hold the dune together. These dunes are a great place to find other plant life too, including species such as sea holly, sea spurge, centaury and prickly saltwort.

Sea holly photo

Sea holly growing on sand dune

Why not take a look at our new UK sandy shore feature page for more information and inspiration, and start planning your next trip to the beach? We’ve got details of the species you might encounter, ideas and tips on choosing where to visit and even suggestions about how you can get involved and help to protect and preserve our coastline.

Claire Lewis, ARKive Researcher

Mar 26

Spring is in the air – daffodils are starting to grow in the hedgerows, birds are beginning to build their nests and frogs are filling up ponds with frogspawn. Unfortunately there is just one thing lacking this spring – the end of the cold, winter weather and the arrival of some sunshine!

Despite the weather’s best attempt, here in the UK ARKive office we have still been thinking about spring – a time often associated with new beginnings and baby animals. To celebrate the arrival of spring (and to cheer ourselves up about the weather) we have put together a list of our top 10 favourite baby animal photos.


Quokka joeys suckle for a further 8-10 weeks after leaving the female’s pouch

The ever smiling quokka is a small marsupial found in Western Australia. Unusually for a marsupial, it has strongly developed hind legs which enable it to climb trees. Quokkas have a short pregnancy of just 4 weeks before the female will give birth to a single joey, which suckles in her pouch for up to 30 weeks.

Asiatic black bear

Asiatic black bear image

An infant Asiatic black bear playing

Female Asiatic black bears, also called ‘moon bears’ due to the cream, crescent shaped marking on the chest, normally give birth to a litter of 2 cubs. Born within the safety of the winter den, normally within a tree hollow, cubs usually stay with their mother for 1 to 1.5 years.

Sea otter

Sea otter image

Californina sea otter pup resting on its mother

Sea otters are not only the smallest marine mammal, but their coat is also the densest of any mammal, consisting of around 100,000 hairs per cm². Female sea otters normally give birth to 1 pup, which they carry round on their chest grooming meticulously to ensure their fur remains buoyant and insulated. Sea otter pups will stay with their mother for around 3 to 6 months.

American oystercatcher

American oystercatcher image

An American oystercatcher chick showing of its hide and seek skills

American oystercatcher chicks are quick learners! Within 24 hours of hatching, the chicks are capable of running and leave the nest only 1 or 2 days later. Within 5 weeks they learn to fly and begin accompanying their parents to learn basic feeding techniques, becoming fully independent several months later.

Arctic fox

Arctic fox image

It is hard work being this cute!

The size of an Arctic fox litter varies depending on the abundance of food available; normally ranging from 5 to 10, litter sizes can reach 19 with high food availability. Both parents help rear the young, the female will stay in the den providing milk whilst the male goes out to hunt for food.

Giant anteater

Giant anteater image

Giant anteaters can carry their young until they are nine months old – the world’s longest piggy back!

The giant anteater, the largest of the extant anteater species, can eat up to 30,000 ants in one day! Female giant anteaters carry their young on their back, where they are aligned with the female’s white stripe so they are camouflaged. Despite being weaned after two months, the young may continue to be carried until they are nine months old.

Mountain chicken

Mountain chicken image

A female mountain chicken and a young froglet emerging from burrow

Despite its name, the mountain chicken is not a bird but is actually a critically endangered frog. Unusually, mountain chickens breed in underground burrows as opposed to breeding in water like most amphibians. After the larvae hatch, mothers will lay upto as many as 25,000 unfertilised eggs, upon which the larvae feed.

The mountain chicken features in ARKive’s latest game – Team WILD.  To find out more and to see if you have what it takes to join this team of elite, science superheroes click here.

Giant panda

Giant panda image

It is not hard to see why pandas are so popular

Giant panda cubs are born at a very immature stage of development meaning they are very helpless at birth. It is not until the cubs are five to six moths old that they even start to move about independently! Giant panda cubs will remain dependent on their mothers until they are at least 18 months old.

Harp seal

Harp seal image

A 2 day old harp seal pup showing of its warm, white coat

Harp seal pups are also known as ‘whitecoats’ due to their thick, white and very insulating fur. Weighing around 11 to 12 kilograms when they are born, harp seal pups will gain 2.2 kilograms in weight per day whilst nursing on their mother’s fatty milk.

White-tailed tropicbird

White-tailed tropicbird image

This chick looks like it has an attitude problem!

Though not as cute as some of the other babies featured in this blog, this photo of the white-tailed tropic bird is one of my favourites. This chick may not look vulnerable, but once hatched white-tailed tropicbird chicks are left alone in the nest frequently, leaving them open to attack from other parents looking for nesting sites. No wonder this chick is trying to look tough!

Hopefully these images have brightened up your day! Let us know which baby animal photos on ARKive are your favourites and don’t forget to nominate them for the title of the World’s Favourite Species!

Jemma Pealing, Media Researcher

Mar 22

Last week saw the ExCel centre in London host the 5th annual Big Bang Fair, the largest celebration of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) for young people in the UK. The aim of the fair is to introduce young people to the wide range of career opportunities available in STEM subjects and quite simply show them how awesome STEM can be. Once again, the ARKive team were delighted to attend, and spent four fun-filled days engaging with the next generation of scientists.

Claire at stand

Over the course of the event, 65,000 visitors descended upon the show floor to take part in all that the Big Bang has to offer, including 60 interactive activity stands and 88 workshop sessions from 180 different organisations. Along with the hordes of children, parents and teachers, the Big Bang Fair also welcomed a famous face or two, including David Cameron, Professor Brian Cox, TV Presenter Liz Bonnin and Business Secretary Vince Cable who opened the fair on Thursday morning. Of course, the two most exciting VIPs in attendance were our very own science superheroes Root and Flora, members of Team WILD’s elite conservation task force.


Picnic area at lunch

Root and Flora’s mission at the fair was to help the rest of the ARKive team recruit new members for Team WILD, an exciting new online game which aims to introduce young people to both environmental issues and potential job opportunities in conservation. Through the power of stickers (number distributed: 1,661), word quickly spread around the fair and the number of Team WILD recruits rose rapidly. The new team members soon proved themselves to be of a high calibre, achieving some very impressive high scores. Due to these incredible scores, Team WILD decided to award one special commendation to the top scorer in each of the four mini-games. These prestigious awards go to the following rookie recruits:

Root FloraJungle
Daniel Nichols: 1,237

George Murray: 2,278

Elliott: 2,297

James: 2,319


Massive congratulations to everybody at the fair who came along to take the Team WILD challenge. For those of you who didn’t get a chance to play on the day, or for those of you who want to try and smash your current high scores, why not head over to our Team WILD page and give it a go! If you need any convincing, Team WILD was described by one young fan as being ‘like Super Mario, but with animals’…what could be better?!


Missed out on The Big Bang Fair this year? Keep an eye on the official website for information about next year’s fair and for details on other similar events near you. See you all next year!

The ARKive STEM Team


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