Feb 16

Valentine’s Day has been and gone but we’d like to spread a little more love, so as a thank you for sharing your favourite species with us on Twitter, we are featuring your Top Ten cool and cute critters right here in our blog!

1. Kakapo

Kakapo image

The nocturnal kakapo is the world's biggest parrot species

This feathered fellow was chosen because it is the world’s only flightless parrot, and the male attracts a female with a bellowing ‘boom’! The kakapo, a giant parrot with an owl-like face, is endemic to New Zealand, and sadly there are only thought to be around 127 individuals remaining.

2. Manatee

Manatee image

The Florida manatee is a subspecies of the West Indian manatee

The gorgeous and tranquil manatee was chosen for being such a gentle giant! This large sirenian can consume between 10 and 15% of its body weight per day…that’s an awful lot of seagrass!

3. Blue whale

Blue whale image

The blue whale is so big that its heart is roughly the size of a Volkswagen Beetle!

Whales are pretty incredible species, and some of you chose the blue whale as an ultimate favourite due to its sheer size; the blue whale is the largest animal ever to have lived, being almost as large as a Boeing 737! Yet despite its size, this giant of the oceans feeds mainly on small shrimp-like krill.

4. Tiger

Tiger image

Young tigers are dependent on their mothers for at least 15 months

The majestic tiger was one of the favourites amongst the furred, and with its beautiful markings and powerful build, we can see why! The pattern and distribution of the stunning stripes on a tiger are unique to each animal, making identification of individuals possible. Sadly, poaching remains a threat to this incredible big cat.

5. Orangutan

Orangutan image

Orangutans are the slowest breeding of all mammal species

Orangutan means ‘person of the forest’ in the native languages of Indonesia and Malaysia, a description which certainly fits this enigmatic, human-like species. The long arms of the orangutan may reach up to two metres in length, perfect for giving their conspecifics a great big Valentine’s Day hug! Unfortunately, habitat destruction is a major threat to both species of orangutan.

6. Orca

Orca image

The shapes of an orca's dorsal fin and saddle patch are unique to each individual

The largest member of the dolphin family, the social orca, was chosen as a favourite for being graceful yet powerful. With its striking black and white markings, the intelligent orca, also known as the killer whale, is certainly an impressive animal, and the dorsal fin of a male can reach up to 1.8 metres in height.

7. Penguin

Emperor penguin image

Weighing up to 40 kilograms, the Emperor penguin is the heavyweight of the penguin world

Penguins were another of the most popular species choices, and they certainly are loveable creatures! The emperor penguin in particular shows great dedication to its family; the male will incubate an egg in sub-zero temperatures for several months without feeding. Now that’s true love!

8. Flamingo

Greater flamingo image

The greater flamingo is the most widespread of the flamingo species

The beautiful greater flamingo is instantly recognisable with its beautiful pink colouration, and long neck and legs. The highly social greater flamingo is the largest and palest of the flamingo species, and is known to swim to find food. This iconic bird nests in massive colonies containing more than 20,000 pairs, so no quiet dinner date for two where this species is concerned!

9. Gorilla

Eastern gorilla image

Young gorillas are not fully weaned until they are 3.5 years of age

The largest of the living apes, the gorilla was another of your favourite furries. This fascinating species lives in stable, cohesive family groups within tropical forests. With their cute, human-like faces and playful antics, it is hard not to feel engaged with these intelligent creatures.

10. Pangolin

Chinese pangolin image

The Chinese pangolin is terrestrial, but is capable of climbing trees and swimming

And finally, the strangest-looking creature from our top ten: the pangolin! Despite not being closely related to anteaters, the curious pangolin is sometimes known as the scaly anteater as it is highly specialised in feeding solely on ants and termites. I wouldn’t consider this to be a particularly delicious Valentine’s Day meal, but am sure the pangolin would beg to differ!

Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Species Text Author

Feb 5

We hope you enjoyed our last From the West End to Wildlife blog featuring Gina Beck and Tori Johns’ favourite species! Today, we’re back with another instalment, quizzing the best of the West End to find out what their favourite species are, and hear about some fascinating wildlife experiences!

Oliver Tompsett

Oliver is currently playing bad-boy wannabe Drew in Rock of Ages, and has chosen a fellow primate as his favourite species, “I love the gorilla; such a powerful creature, yet always so gentle to its family.

Mountain gorilla silverback

Gorilla families are led by an adult male known as a silverback

Oliver is quite right; despite their King Kong reputation, gorillas are actually not particularly aggressive animals, and live in strongly bonded family groups led by a male known as a silverback. There are two species of this impressive primate, the eastern gorilla and the western gorilla, classified as Endangered and Critically Endangered, respectively, on the IUCN Red List. The main threats to these majestic creatures are the loss and fragmentation of habitat, and poaching.

Infant mountain gorilla image

Young gorillas are not fully weaned until they are 3.5 years old

Did you know?

  • Gorillas are the largest of the living apes; adult male gorillas can stand at a height of 1.7 metres.
  • At about 14 years of age, the hair on the saddle of a male’s back turns whitish, hence the name ‘silverback’.
  • Despite their massive size, gorillas are herbivorous, feeding mainly on leaves.
  • Gorillas build nests to sleep in at night, usually on the ground.

Oliver moves from land to sea for the location of his favourite wildlife experience to date, “Snorkelling in Egypt! It was truly like being super-imposed into Finding Nemo! The colours were incredible!

One of the stars of Finding Nemo was Crush the green turtle, and Oliver may well have seen one of Crush’s relatives, gliding gracefully over the reef, during his snorkelling adventures in Egypt.

Green turtle image

Green turtles are graceful gentle giants

There are hundreds more intriguing species to be found off the coast of Egypt, and as an avid rocker, I’m sure that Oliver’s character Drew would have loved to have seen the super-cool giant guitarfish!

Giant guitarfish image

The giant guitarfish is named for its strange guitar-like shape!

Our favourite rocker’s trip was ended rather abruptly thanks to the appearance of another rather large fish species…

The guide saw a dangerous shark and told us all to get back on the boat. Luckily I didn’t see it or I would have cried. I am obsessed with and petrified of sharks!

Oliver may well be terrified of sharks, but we have found one West End wonder who loves them…

 

Sarah Earnshaw

When asked about her favourite species, Sarah replied without hesitation, “For me it has to be the great white shark. I’m absolutely fascinated by them. They have such power, yet are incredibly graceful. I mean, don’t get me wrong, if I came face to face with one I’d be terrified but there’s something so intriguing about their mystery and danger!

Great white shark image

Great white sharks are highly skilled marine predators

The great white shark is often thought of as a fearsome man-eater, but this is not the case; it feeds predominantly on fish, but will also eat turtles, molluscs and small marine mammals.  Like other sharks and rays, the great white shark has a skeleton made of cartilage, rather than bone. This mighty species uses its keen senses of smell, sound location and electroreception to detect weak and injured prey from great distances.

Sarah sticks to the marine realm for her favourite wildlife experience, “I had the most fantastic experience when I was in New Zealand. I went whale and dolphin watching. We saw three beautiful humpback whales, and dolphins literally for as far as the eye could see! There was something so special about seeing the whales diving and their tails rising above the surface. It was an experience I’ll never forget.

Humpback whale image

Humpback whale calves are born in warm waters

Did you know?

  • The humpback whale gets its name from the way it arches its back when it dives deeply or ‘sounds’.
  • The pattern on the underside of the flukes is unique to each whale, and can be used to photo-identify individuals.
  • Humpback whales are known to herd their prey into a cluster by blowing a net of bubbles around shoals of potential food, making it easier to catch a big mouthful at once.
  • Male humpback whales sing a complex song to attract mates.

Sarah is a firm believer in wildlife conservation, “Conservation is extremely important. Without it, not only would we lose some of the most interesting, beautiful and diverse creatures in the world, we also risk a real disruption to the balance of nature as we know it.

Join us again soon for our next blog, when Kerry Ellis and Aoife Mulholland share their wildlife favourites with us!

Get involved

Why not have a browse around the ARKive website to seek out your favourite species? You might be surprised at what you find! Then help spread the wildlife love by tweeting about your chosen awesome animal or peculiar plant using the #LoveSpecies hashtag!

Oct 18

The threatened eastern gorilla is in grave danger as a result of a recent surge in the trafficking of baby gorillas.

Juvenile mountaint gorilla image

Juvenile mountain gorilla

Wildlife officials in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are reporting a marked increase in the trafficking of Critically Endangered baby mountain gorillas, a subspecies of the eastern gorilla, and warn that the situation is rapidly getting out of control. With poachers demanding up to $40,000 (£25,350) per animal, the authorities are struggling to combat the escalation in illegal trade.

On the edge

The mountain gorilla is an extremely charismatic species, and certainly an impressive one, with mature males growing up to 1.7 metres in height and attaining weights of more than 150 kilograms.

The future of this magnificent species is, however, currently uncertain. As a result of human activities including armed conflict, targeted hunting and accidental trapping in snares intended for other animals, the mountain gorilla has been creeping ever closer towards extinction for decades, with a total population of fewer than 800 individuals left in the world. This recent surge in trafficking, if left unchallenged, could tip the balance.

Mountain gorilla image

Female mountain gorilla

The ape escape

Earlier this month, a team of rangers from Virunga National Park went undercover in the town of Kirumba, near the park’s western border, and posed as potential buyers. They were able to make contact with poachers who were hiding an 18-month-old eastern lowland gorilla, another subspecies of the eastern gorilla, in a small backpack. A deal was agreed upon, and once the rangers had the young gorilla in their possession, the poachers were immediately arrested.

Further incidents have been recorded this year in the DRC and in Rwanda, involving both eastern lowland and mountain gorillas, making this the fourth such rescue since April.

Emmanuel de Merode, director of Virunga National Park, voiced his concerns about the growing market for baby gorillas which is currently feeding the trafficking activities: “We are powerless to control the international trade in baby gorillas, but our rangers are doing everything they can to stamp it out on the ground. Four baby gorillas seized in less than a year is unusually high … [but] it’s only the tip of the iceberg, as we only manage to catch a small proportion of the offenders because the wildlife service is under-resourced in Congo.”

Image of animal traps

Guard showing all the animal traps collected within two months in Virunga National Park, habitat of the mountain gorilla

The latest victim

The newest baby gorilla orphaned in the name of animal trafficking is Shamavu, named after the ranger who rescued him. It is likely that the young gorilla’s family were killed in order to pry him away, but despite this, Shamavu is one of the lucky ones. Not only was he rescued, he was also in relatively good physical condition, something which cannot be said of a lot of the baby gorillas rescued from poachers.

“Many of these infants are injured from ropes around their hands, feet or waist, and some are quite ill, which is not surprising as they are generally in close contact with their human captors, extremely stressed, and with very poor nutrition,” said Dr Jan Ramer, a vet with Mountain Gorilla Veterinarian Project (MGVP), a partner of Virunga National Park.

Mountain gorilla family image

Silverback mountain gorilla resting with group

The next step

These rescues offer a glimmer of hope for the future of the mountain gorilla, but sadly the news is not all good. Officials report that they lack the resources and jurisdiction to investigate the trafficking further, and as a result do not know where the gorillas are headed or who is involved.

“What we do know is that just the rumour that someone is looking to buy a baby ape can be enough for penniless hunters to think: ‘I could get one of those and sell it for $$$$!’,” said Ian Redmond, chairman of the Ape Alliance.

Emmanuel de Merode is calling for stronger enforcement of legislation, particularly in the market countries where the demand for baby gorillas is high, and asks for increased surveillance in towns and along borders. He adds that local communities may be key players in halting the trafficking which is causing such devastating losses to an already-fragile species.

Read more on this story at The Guardian – Trafficking of baby gorillas poses new threat to endangered species.

View photos and videos of the eastern gorilla on ARKive.

Kathryn Pintus, ARKive Species Text Author

Sep 8

A comprehensive census of the Critically Endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) began yesterday in Uganda’s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, under the coordination of Ugandan wildlife officials and staff from international conservation organisations.   

 

Female mountain gorilla photo

A female mountain gorilla

WWF funding 

The survey is being part-funded by WWF-Sweden. As well as the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, the census may also include parts of the neighbouring Sarambwe Nature Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo if the security situation remains stable enough. 

The IUCN estimated that in 2006, a total of 680 mountain gorillas remained in just two isolated populations. One population is located in the Virunga region of the mountainous forest borders of Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, while the second occurs in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in south-western Uganda. 

WWF report that the most recent estimate of the mountain gorilla population stands at 786 wild individuals. 

Photo of an infant mountain gorilla

An infant mountain gorilla

Populations slowly growing 

According to WWF, mountain gorilla populations are slowly growing thanks to the efforts of conservationists. A number of measures, such as anti-poaching patrols, habituation projects and veterinary monitoring, have been vital in helping to protect and increase the highly vulnerable populations of this species. 

However, despite the best efforts of these organisations, a series of threats – including illegal poaching, capture of gorillas, increasing human-gorilla conflict and habitat destruction – continue to threaten the magnificent mountain gorilla. 

With fewer than 800 mountain gorillas left, it is essential that every individual be protected from harm,” says David Greer, WWF’s African Great Apes Programme Coordinator. 

Through our partner the International Gorilla Conservation Programme, we are working closely with rangers and law enforcement investigators to ensure that when a wildlife crime does occur, evidence is handled properly so prosecutors can make a strong case in court.” 

Image of a mountain gorilla silverback

Mountain gorilla silverback portrait

Economic value 

Each mountain gorilla living in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park is estimated to generate around $1 million per year in tourist revenue for the Ugandan economy. 

The Ugandan government recognises the value that the mountain gorillas bring to the country, and punishments for wildlife crimes tend to be stricter than in the other neighbouring countries. 

According to WWF, the results of the current census are expected to be released in nine months time. 

This allows time for scientists to carry out genetic analysis of faecal samples, which are being collected to reduce the possibility that individuals have been double-counted. 

Find out more about the Eastern gorilla on ARKive 

Read the full WWF Press Release 

Helen Roddis, ARKive Species Text Author 

May 17

A new study offers hope for the survival of species with critically low populations, such as the Siberian tiger and mountain gorilla, which in the past were deemed ‘too rare to save’.  

The findings of the UK-US research team, suggests that as long as conservation efforts target the key threats to an endangered species, even relatively small populations could be viable in the long term.

Photo of a captive Philippine eagle

Philippine eagle

Minimum Viable Population 

The study, published in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution, critically analysed the use of a key concept in conservation policies, the Minimum Viable Population (MVP). MVP is the estimated minimum size of a population that will have a 99% chance of avoiding extinction over the next 40 generations. 

Because, money and resources for conservation are limited, MVP is often used to decide whether or not a species should be the focus of conservation efforts. For species with very small populations, such as those numbering less than thousands of individuals, previous studies have suggested that it might be too late to act and that it is better to concentrate these limited conservation resources elsewhere. 

However, the authors of the latest study argue that there is no “magic number” for saving endangered species, and that population sizes required for long-term viability varies greatly and depend on the specific circumstances in which the population is found.

Photo of Siberian tigers greeting

Siberian tigers

Implications for endangered species 

The findings of the study have important implications for conserving some of the world’s most charismatic endangered species, which often exist in populations numbering in the hundreds, or even less. 

Examples include the mountain gorilla, which numbers 1,000 or less, the approximately 450 remaining Siberian tigers, the 180-500 remaining mature Philippine eagles, and the 70 wild Puerto Rican amazons

Dr. Greg Hayward, the U.S. Forest Service’s regional ecologist for Alaska said, “This is good news for biologists working to save species like the tiger. There’s a lot of work to do to arrest the effects of poaching, prey loss and habitat destruction. However, if that work is successful, the tiger might yet be able to recover, despite the relatively small size of most tiger populations.”

Photo of Mountain gorilla with young

Mountain gorilla

The authors argue that conservationists should not give up on saving an endangered species, even if its population is very small, and advise policy-makers to be cautious about setting guidelines for ‘safe’ population sizes. 

However, they also warn against potential complacency as no population size is likely to be safe from extinction when conservation activities fail to tackle the threats causing a species’ population to decline. 

Read more about this at ScienceDaily – ‘There’s No Magic Number for Saving Endangered Species’.

Alex Royan, ARKive Species Text Author

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