Feb 1

Species name: red squirrel

Nominated by: The Wildlife Trust for

Lancashire, Manchester & North Merseyside

IUCN Red List classification: Least Concern

What is so special about your species?

For many in the United Kingdon, the red squirrel brings back childhood memories of Squirrel Nutkin, a character from the famous Beatrix Potter series. The red squirrel is one of our most iconic, native and much loved small mammals in the UK. Seeing a red squirrel for the first time is a special moment, and something that everybody should experience.

In terms of ecological niche, the red squirrel is a key seed disperser for our native tree species such as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). They also spread mychorrizal fungi spores that are incredibly important for their symbiosis with trees. Red squirrels therefore play a vital role in regeneration of coniferous woodlands which are also an important habitat for other species, such as the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), pine marten (Martes martes) and wildcat (Felis silvestris).

What are the threats to this species in the wild?

The red squirrel has nearly completely disappeared from the UK in just under 150 years, declining from around 3.5 million to just 140,000. However they are now a protected species in the UK.

Sadly, the biggest threat to the species has been the introduction of the invasive grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), brought over by the Victorians in the 1870s. Not only do grey squirrels outcompete Reds in for food and resources, they also carry the squirrel pox virus. This virus is highly pathogenic to reds, yet carried by greys without impact on their health. Currently 61% of Greys have been exposed to and may carry the virus. Where the virus is present, Greys replace red squirrels twenty times faster than through competition alone.

What can people do to help your species?

If you are in an area in the UK which currently has a population of red squirrels nearby and you spot a grey squirrel, please contact your local Wildlife Trust or Red Squirrels United (a partnership of many organisations working together to save the Red), and inform them of your sighting.

If you would like to get involved in long term monitoring and survey work, helping towards understanding population trends, impacts of Greys and the effects of conservation management techniques then please contact us.

If you don’t live close to a population of Reds, one way you can help is by raising awareness about the red squirrel through community engagement and fundraising. Get creative and get in touch and let’s save the last red squirrel together!

VOTE NOW!

 

Oct 1

Defending the United Kingdom against invasive, non-native species costs as much as £1.7 billion each year, according to a report by the BBC Countryfile programme.

Photo of a captive American mink on riverbank

The American mink has contributed to a rapid decline in the native water vole in the UK

Threat to native wildlife

The programme highlights the threats that so-called ‘alien’ species are posing to the UK’s native animals and plants, and the high cost of tackling the problem.

Invasive, non-native species are those which have been introduced by humans to areas outside of their natural range and, in the absence of natural predators and parasites, increase and spread to the detriment of native species and human interests. Worldwide, invasive species are considered to be the largest cause of biodiversity loss after humans.

Photo of common carp being fed on by an invasive species, the American signal crayfish

The signal crayfish is a voracious predator and has a negative impact on native crayfish species in Europe

Alien invaders

An example of a problematic invasive species in the UK is the zebra mussel, which arrived in the UK around ten years ago on the hulls of ships from Europe. This species reproduces so rapidly that it smothers native mussels and can block water systems. At Rutland Water in Leicestershire, England, the local water company has to spend around half a million pounds a year dealing with the species, and has installed filters to the reservoir to prevent the zebra mussels from spreading through and choking their water pipes.

Other well-known invasive species in the UK include the American mink, implicated in the decline of the water vole, and the grey squirrel, which is held largely responsible for the decline in native red squirrels.

Photo of grey squirrel collecting leaves in mouth

Introduced to the UK from North America, the grey squirrel has caused a decline in native red squirrels

Foreign plants are also causing major problems. Japanese knotweed alone is estimated to cost the UK economy £165 million each year to eradicate, and mortgages are being turned down due to the damage this species can do to properties. Of the £1.7 billion spent each year on dealing with invasive species in the UK, around £3 million goes towards clearing non-native weeds which can block canals, rivers and ponds.

Threats to health

As well as threatening native species and having an economic impact, invasive animals and plants can also pose risks to human health. For example, the sap of giant hogweed can cause painful blisters, while the hairy caterpillars of oak processionary moths can trigger allergic reactions.

Photo of bluebells in oak wood

Native UK bluebells are threatened by hybridisation with introduced Spanish bluebells

According to BBC Countryfile’s investigations reporter, Tom Heap, “From the grey squirrel, American crayfish, mink driving water voles from our river banks and the small but scarily named ‘killer shrimp’, a whole host of animals and plants are playing their part in colonising our countryside. Luckily, of the 2,000 non-native species living among us, only a few hundred are actually harmful.”

 

Read more about this story at The Telegraph – Defending UK from foreign species costs £26 per person.

Find out more about invasive species in the UK at the GB Non-Native Species Secretariat (NNSS).

View photos and videos of species from the United Kingdom on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author

Sep 20

The number of red squirrels in northern England has risen for the first time in 140 years, according to a new survey.

Photo of a red squirrel

The red squirrel is a much-loved species in the UK

Foreign invaders

The native red squirrel was almost wiped out across the United Kingdom after the grey squirrel was introduced from North America in the 1900s. As well as being larger and more adaptable, the grey squirrel carries a pox virus to which the red squirrel is susceptible.

As a result of the grey squirrel’s success, the native red squirrel is now restricted to just a few parts of northern England, the Isle of Wight and Scotland.

Photo of grey squirrel collecting leaves in mouth

The grey squirrel is native to North America, but was introduced to the UK in the 1900s

Red squirrel rise

Now, after years of decline, the red squirrel may be starting to make a comeback. A recent three-month study in 300 woodlands across northern England found that the number of red squirrels has risen by 7% compared to the same period last year. It also found that grey squirrels in the area were declining.

According to the wildlife group Red Squirrels Northern England (RSNE), which carried out the survey, the increase in reds is likely to be a result of conservation efforts to improve their woodland habitats.

Conservationists have also been trapping squirrels, releasing the native reds but killing the non-native greys.

Photo of red squirrel

Although widespread across most of Europe and into northern Asia and Siberia, the red squirrel has undergone a serious decline in the UK

Good for tourism

As well as increasing in number, the red squirrels have also been returning to areas from which they had disappeared. For example, the survey found the species in Ambleside and Rydal in Cumbria for the first time in ten years.

The monitoring has helped us learn that there are now 20 squirrels close to our home here which inspires us to continue our efforts to save this native species,” said Phil Bailey of the Brampton Red Squirrel Group in Cumbria.

Photo of red squirrel feeding

Red squirrel feeding

The involvement of local people has been seen as crucial in helping the red squirrels to return, and this popular species is also an important draw for tourists. According to Simon O’Hare of the RSNE, “The effect on tourism is immeasurable. People never forget seeing red squirrels.”

 

Read more on this story at The Telegraph – After 140 years, red squirrels are fighting back and BBC News – Red squirrels rise by 7% in North after decline.

View more images and videos of the red squirrel on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author

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