Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: pelagic thresher

Nominated by: Sharks4Kids

Why do you love it?

The pelagic thresher has a tail that can be as long as the body itself. It uses this tail to stun prey, which has earned them the nickname “ninja shark.” This amazing adaptation makes this animal truly unique.

What are the threats to pelagic thresher?

This shark is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List and the population is decreasing. They are targeted by commercial fisheries for their fins, meat, liver oil and skin. They are also caught as bycatch on tuna longlines. It is estimated that thresher shark fins make up 2-3% of the fins auctioned off in Hong Kong markets.

What are you doing to save it? Our team does not work directly with these sharks, but we are working to spread education and awareness about the species to students around the world. We are promoting the addition of all 3 species of thresher shark to the CITES Appendix II listing. We have also introduced a new

Our team does not work directly with these sharks, but we are working to spread education and awareness about the species to students around the world. We are promoting the addition of all 3 species of thresher shark to the CITES Appendix II listing. We have also introduced a new colouring fact sheeting to get students excited about this species.

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Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: silky shark

Nominated by: Project AWARE

Why do you love it?

It may not be as well-known as its hammerhead, great white or oceanic whitetip cousins but the silky shark is undoubtedly one of the most magnificent! This streamlined and sleek ocean predator gets its name from its exceptionally smooth skin and metallic tone.

Project AWARE® has always had a lot of love for this shark but in 2016 we fell head over heels. The 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES CoP17) was firmly on our agenda. Project AWARE rallied support from the global dive community and engaged with relevant governments to urge member signatories to protect the silky shark and other commercially valuable shark and ray species from the devastating effects of unregulated international trade. Together with our shark conservation partners, including Shark Advocates International and the Shark Trust, we delivered strong science-based arguments in support of international trade controls for the silky shark. And we celebrated, as proposals for the silky shark and other shark and ray species to be listed on CITES Appendix II were successfully adopted.

What are the threats to the silky shark?

This highly migratory, low productivity shark is at risk from substantial incidental take in high seas fisheries. Due to its beautifully marked skin, the silky shark is a popular target for the shark leather trade. Like many other sharks, it is also fished for its fins, meat and liver oil.

Silky sharks are among the shark species most commonly captured in pelagic longline and purse seine gear set primarily for tunas; the associated mortality is the primary threat to silky shark populations. They are vulnerable to overfishing due to slow growth, late maturity, lengthy gestation, and few young.

Classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, and ranked among the top three most important sharks in the global fin trade, the silky shark truly deserves all our love and attention.

What are you doing to save it?

In our work to end overexploitation of sharks and rays, Project AWARE advocates for national, regional, and global conservation actions that limit catch based on science and the precautionary approach, and we advocate for the end of at-sea removal of fins. We inform, inspire and empower shark advocates to become shark defenders and use our powerful and collective voice to influence change for the most vulnerable shark and ray species.

In 2017, we encourage our community to be an agent of positive change for the ocean. We believe we can create a global culture that nurtures and sustains a thriving, vibrant ocean.

Find out about the many ways that Project AWARE help sharks and other marine creatures, and how you can help on their website.

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VOTE FOR ME!

Jan 27

#LoveSpecies nominee: Greenland shark

Nominated by: SharkFest

Why do you love it?

The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is the oldest living vertebrate animal – previously thought to be the bowhead whale – and one of the Arctic’s most mysterious species!

Weighing 900kg on average and reaching up to 7m long, the Greenland shark is one of only 2 sharks found in the Arctic, and one of the largest sharks on the planet. Despite reaching a similar size as the Great White shark, Greenland sharks are so slow that they are often called ‘sleeper sharks’ and they are blinded by parasites that feed on their eyes.

Scientists recently found a 400-year-old female Greenland shark, who would have reached sexual maturity at about 150 years old. She was born during the reign of James I, reached adulthood around the time that the American revolution began, and has lived through 2 world wars.

Greenland sharks prey upon almost everything – eels, whales, sea urchins, seals, crabs, fish, other sharks and even polar bear and caribou! The Greenland shark’s position as one of the top predators of the Arctic food chain makes it a very important species to research and conserve.

What are the threats to the Greenland Shark?

Unfortunately, Greenland sharks are easy to catch because of their size and slow speed. Fishermen by Nunavut’s turbot fisheries and elsewhere often accidently catch Greenland sharks (as bycatch), and because they’re not edible they’re discarded.

The varied diet of the Greenland shark could also put them at risk of eating human-created wastes and pollutants that are not part of the shark’s natural diet. Human development, travel and climate change also impact the fragile environment that the Greenland sharks rely on.

Luckily Greenland shark populations are currently believed to be healthy!

What are you doing to save it?

SharkFest UK is encouraging marine conservation organisations to collaborate for the good of sharks and rays worldwide. SharkFest UK also inspires children and students to take up a career in shark research, education and/ or conservation.

WWF is supporting and participating in research that tracks Greenland sharks as part of the Ocean Tracking Network for monitoring sustainable ocean management around the world.

Today very little is known about the Greenland shark – critical hunting habitats, mating and birth, how many young they have, etc. This information is crucial for understanding the impacts of human-activities on Greenland sharks, and learning how we can best protect this mysterious, ancient shark.

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Jun 29

As it’s #SharkWeek we thought we’d have a browse through Arkive and select our top 10 shark images and share them with you!

1) Say cheese!

What shark list would be complete without the magnificent great white shark? Here pictured giving the photographer Ralf Kiekner a nice, big, cheesy grin.

2) Gentle giant

Despite being the largest fish in the world, the whale shark survives solely on a diet of plankton and small fish. You can’t see them in this photo but the mouth of the whale shark actually contains 300 tiny teeth, the function of which is unknown.

3) Extreme close-up

This beautiful close-up of a tawny nurse shark by Juergen Freud shows the beautiful pattern of its skin and mesmerising eyes.

4) You got a little something….

Now as all good friends know, if your buddy has something stuck in their teeth you should always tell them. Shame on the guy in the back of this photo!

5) Don’t try this at home!

Many scientists believe that sharks have a blind spot directly in front of them because of the position of their eyes, so Masa Ushoida was likely to have been completely hidden from this very photogenic tiger shark!

6) Weird and wonderful

This frilled shark portrait shows how seriously strange-looking this primitive creature is.

7) What’s lurking beneath the surface?

The second largest fish in the sea, the basking shark, grows to lengths of at least 10 metres. This half-and-half image by Alex Mustard shows the basking shark’s feeding behaviour which mostly includes swimming at the water’s surface with its huge mouth open, filtering plankton from the water that passes over its gills.

8) My, what big teeth you have!

Now, we’re big believers that every member of the animal kingdom is beautiful in its own special way. We also think in the case of the sand tiger shark, its beauty may lay within.

 

9) Sharks aplenty

Our patron Sylvia Earle, also known as ‘her deepness’, once said ‘Sharks are beautiful animals, and if you’re lucky enough to see lots of them, that means that you’re in a healthy ocean. You should be afraid if you are in the ocean and don’t see sharks’. This bit of ocean must be very healthy!

10) Freedom at last

This poor juvenile blacktip reef shark was unfortunate enough to get caught on a longline hook. Fortunately, unlike many sharks, a diver was there at the right moment to set it free.

 

Are there any shark images on Arkive that we’ve missed out of our top 10 that you think should be in there? Let us know!

Apr 25

Cephalopods are arguably the weirdest of all marine invertebrates. The name cephalopod literally translates to ‘head-footed’ in Greek, indicating just how strange members of this taxonomic class are, but nothing in their name indicates how incredibly intelligent they are. Their alien-like features are truly fascinating and cephalopods are commonly regarded as the most advanced of all invertebrates!

The weirdest one – nautilus (Nautilus pompilius)

Kicking off our list is the bizarre-looking nautilus, whose appearance resembles a cross between a snail and a shrimp. They are the only species of cephalopod to have retained their external shell, which means they cannot alter their appearance as well as their counterparts.

The invisible one – common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

The common cuttlefish is a master of disguise, possessing the ability to transform its appearance to suit its surroundings in an instant. Check out this amazing talent in this video!

The deadly one – southern blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa)

This species has one of the most potent venoms on the planet, 1000 times more powerful than cyanide, and there is no known antidote. The blue rings after which this species is named will only appear when an individual is disturbed and serve as a warning before it attacks. The helpless crab in this video finds this out the hard way!

The strangely familiar one – opalescent squid (Loligo opalescens)

You may have come into contact with this cephalopod more than any other – the opalescent squid is more commonly known to us as ‘calamari’. These small squids live in extremely large shoals and hunt by striking their prey with their tentacles.

The one-size-fits-all one – curled octopus (Eledone cirrhosa)

The ability of the curled octopus to transform and camouflage its body is truly fascinating – there is no gap too small or seaweed too colourful for this species! The curled octopus is also equipped with an ink jet they can utilise as a distraction when a predator is nearby. On top of all that, it also has an extremely toxic venom that it uses to paralyse its prey!

The colourful one – Carribean reef squid (Sepioteuthis sepioidea)

Commonly found in shallow reef waters, this intriguing species has enormous eyes and is known to have the largest eye-to-body ratio of the whole animal kingdom! Carribean reef squid communicate with each other by changing the colour of their skin.

The huge one – giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama)

The giant Australian cuttlefish is largest cuttlefish species, reaching lengths of up to a metre.  Despite its large size, this species it is a master of disguise and can easily blend in with its  surroundings due to special pigment cells called chromatophores which allow it to change colour in an instant.

The even huger one – Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas)

A close relative of the giant squid, this species, also known as the ‘jumbo squid’, is a monster capable of growing up to 2 metres long and weighing over 50 kilograms! They can move at considerable speeds (up to 24km/h) and have been known to propel themselves out of the water and soar through the air to evade their predators which include whales, sharks, seals and swordfish.

The bright one – firefly squid (Watasenia scintillans)

This bioluminescent species is definitely deserving of a top 10 spot as it is responsible for one of the most spectacular light shows on the planet! Between March and June millions of firefly squid gather off of the coast of Japan, as well as hundreds of tourists, producing a natural spectacle like no other. The firefly squid also uses its bioluminescence to attract prey and select mates.

The strong one – North Pacific giant octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)

Reaching lengths of up to 5 metres and weighing in at up to 50 kilograms, this monster octopus had to make the top 10! The photograph below is not photoshopped, this species does eat sharks! Its raw strength makes it capable of ripping apart shells and flesh with its tentacles or using its powerful ‘beak’ to make easy work of its prey. This, in tandem with its camouflaging talent, makes it a truly ferocious predator.

Have we missed out your favourite cephalopod? Let us know!

Discover more cephalopods on the Arkive website

Will Powell, Arkive guest blogger

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