Mar 22

World Water Day logo

Earth’s most precious resource?

Water is essential to life on Earth. However, our insatiable demand is putting water, one of our most precious natural resources, at risk.

The enormous growth in the human population over recent decades is placing a huge strain on the world’s freshwater reserves, with our global consumption of water for food production, energy, industrial and domestic uses beginning to reach what are thought to be unsustainable levels. Similarly, rapid urbanisation, pollution and climate change are all exacerbating the problem, further threatening one of the world’s most vital resources.

World Water Day 2013

To draw attention to the importance of freshwater and the need for sustainable management of the world’s freshwater resources, the United Nations (UN) has designated 22 March ‘World Water Day’.

Held annually, World Water Day gives people all around the world the opportunity to take action to raise awareness on water issues and improve the management of the world’s water resources. In 2013, in reflection of the International Year of Water Cooperation, World Water Day is also dedicated to the theme of cooperation around water.

See how you can get involved!

Great crested grebe courtship display

To celebrate International Year of Water Cooperation, World Water Day is also dedicated to the theme of cooperation around water. This courting great crested grebe pair have clearly got the hang of the importance of sharing our finite freshwater resources!

Calling all budding young filmmakers in the UK!

Celebrate World Water Day at the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust with the launch of ‘Hot Water’, a competition with a mission: Can young people create a film that will transform our water-wasting ways?

To kick things off on World Water Day, Cool It Schools is launching ‘Hot Water’. Young people from all over the UK are invited to create an inspirational, behaviour-changing film of TV advert length (no more than 50 seconds) that will aim to help put a stop to our bad water habits once and for all.

Find out more about the ‘Hot Water’ competition and see how you can enter.

Mar 22

Water is essential to all forms of life on Earth. That said, the enormous increase in the human population over the past few decades has placed a greater strain on the world’s freshwater reserves through direct consumption, agriculture and manufacturing activities. Sadly water shortages are not uncommon in many parts of the world. These shortages can have devastating effects for both people and wildlife and can be exacerbated by climate change.

The UN recognises March 22nd as International World Water Day to encourage people to limit their use of water as well as to highlight the issue of water shortages. To mark the day, we thought we would highlight just a few of the many organisms that depend on freshwater for survival.

Water as a jealously guarded dive site

Photo of a kingfisher exiting water with fish

Blink and you could miss the all the action! A kingfisher emerges from the water victorious with its catch

The striking yet elusive kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) is famous for diving from its perch into rivers to catch fish and invertebrates. As the kingfisher requires a relatively large amount of food to sustain itself it will aggressively defend its watery hunting ground from other kingfishers with threatening displays and even physical contest. As kingfishers require clear water to see their prey and vegetation on which to perch, their presence is a good indicator of a healthy river ecosystem.

Water as a spawning ground and nursery

Photo of green-thighed frog frogspawn

A mass of green-thighed frog frogspawn in freshwater

Amphibians depend on freshwater in some form or another to lay their eggs, which develop into fully aquatic tadpoles. Predation on tadpoles is often high which is why most species lay a large number of eggs in a specific breeding season. This strategy is practiced by the green-thighed frog maximising the amount of offspring that survive to adulthood.

Water as a last refuge

A pair of Cuban crocodiles in swamp habitat

A pair of Cuban crocodiles in swamp habitat

The Cuban crocodile is found in only two freshwater swamps in Cuba. This extremely restricted range makes it highly vunerable to extinction and it depends on these specific habitats for its survival. Fortunately due to recent conservation efforts the Cuban crocodile’s numbers are recovering.

Water as a trap

Water boatman feeding on dragonfly

The water boatman will make a meal out of any insects trapped on the surface of the water, like this dragon fly

A fierce predator in many ponds and lakes across Europe, the water boatman sits and waits near the surface of the water until it detects movement nearby… it then swoops in on its prey with a toxic bite!

Water as a place to grow

White water lily flower, view from underwater

Growing from the deep: a white water-lily flower, view from underwater

Freshwater ponds and lakes all around the world are home to a huge array of interesting and beautiful plant life. The white water-lily has many adaptations to a life in freshwater such as its large flat leaves that float on the surface of the water so as to receive more light. Aquatic plants also often have important roles in freshwater ecosystems, oxygenating the water, provide nesting sites and keeping algal blooms under control.

Water as a place to set up a fortress

American beaver swimming with branches

An American beaver swims with a tree branch

The American beaver is famous for drastically altering its freshwater surroundings to make a suitable habitat. Using its tough incisors to fell trees for dams, the beaver creates an area of open, still water where it constructs its lodge. Entrance to the lodge is only possible from under the water and therefore the beaver and any offspring are protected from terrestrial predators. The beaver itself also has specific adaptations for a life in water with webbed feet and a large flat tail used for propulsion as well as a dense underfur that keeps it warm even in freezing water.

Water as a hunting ground

Pike sheltering under water lily leaf

A pike sheltering under water lily leaf

All ecosystems have a ‘top dog’ predator and in many rivers and creeks in Europe this will be the pike. A ferocious predator, the pike will remain perfectly still waiting for prey to come within a close distance and then move in for the kill with a lightening fast strike. Pike are likely to consider many of the animals in their watery environment as prey including fish, crayfish, frogs and newts and even ducklings and small mammals. Pike do need to be careful around members of their own species though as larger pike have been known to practice cannibalism!

Find out more about World Water Day 2012.

George Bradford, ARKive Media Researcher


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