Oct 26
Photo of Florida perforate reindeer lichen on sand

Florida perforate reindeer lichen (Cladonia perforata)

Species: Florida perforate reindeer lichen (Cladonia perforata)

Status: Endangered (EN)

Interesting Fact: The Florida perforate reindeer lichen is not known to reproduce sexually, instead spreading vegetatively when broken-off pieces of the lichen re-grow.

More information:

As its name suggests, the Florida perforate reindeer lichen is found only in Florida in the United States, where it occurs in three separate regions, each with a number of highly fragmented populations. Like other lichens, this species consists of two different organisms, a fungus and an alga, living in a close symbiotic relationship. The Florida perforate reindeer lichen grows in a complex branching pattern, with each branch measuring around four to six centimetres in length. The branches are smooth and yellowish- or greyish-green, and have conspicuous holes at the base. This species grows slowly, only branching once a year. The Florida perforate reindeer lichen grows on high sand dune ridges among Florida rosemary scrub, where it typically occurs in open patches of sand between the shrubs.

One of the main threats to the Florida perforate reindeer lichen is habitat loss due to development and land conversion. This species is also vulnerable to disturbances caused by fires and hurricanes, and can be trampled by people and by vehicles using sand dunes for recreation. In 1993, the Florida perforate reindeer lichen became the first lichen species to be placed on the U.S. Endangered Species List, meaning that all federal landowners with populations of this species are responsible for protecting and conserving it. In addition, Florida has an active conservation programme which monitors and conserves species such as this by acquiring and managing land. Several of this lichen’s populations are protected, and the species has been reintroduced to some locations. Further measures are needed to ensure that the Florida perforate reindeer lichen and its habitat are protected from trampling and unsuitable fire regimes.

 

Find out more about conservation in Florida at The Nature Conservancy – Florida and the Conservation Trust for Florida.

See more images of the Florida perforate reindeer lichen on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author

Oct 19
Photo of Louisiana pine snake

Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)

Species: Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)

Status: Endangered (EN)

Interesting Fact: The Louisiana pine snake is non-venomous, instead using its body to crush its prey.

More information:

One of the rarest and least understood snakes in the United States, the Louisiana pine snake occurs in longleaf pine forests in parts of Louisiana and eastern Texas. This large snake relies on pocket gophers for food, hunting them in their underground burrows and pinning them to the side of the burrow to kill them. It also eats some other small mammals, as well as birds, bird and turtle eggs, and lizards. The Louisiana pine snake spends most of its time underground, usually relying on pocket gopher burrows for shelter and for hibernation sites. This snake has the smallest clutch size of any North American snake, at just three to five eggs. However, its eggs are larger than those of other North American species.

The Louisiana pine snake’s longleaf pine habitat is one of the most threatened ecosystems in the United States, with only 3% of the original forest now remaining. Much has been logged or degraded by urbanisation, agriculture and the cultivation of other pine species. Changed fire regimes have also altered the structure of the habitat, making it less suitable for the snake and its prey. The Louisiana pine snake is often killed on roads and may be threatened by collection for the pet trade. Recommended conservation measures for this snake include protecting its remaining populations, maintaining and restoring its habitat, and undertaking more research into its populations and behaviour. The Louisiana pine snake is a candidate species for potential listing on the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and is legally protected in Texas. A reintroduction project is underway for this rare and elusive species.

 

Find out more about the Louisiana pine snake at the National Wildlife Federation and see Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation for more information on reptile conservation.

See fact file and images of the Louisiana pine snake on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author

Oct 12
Photo of Maltese rock-centaury flowers in habitat

Maltese rock-centaury (Cheirolophus crassifolius)

Species: Maltese rock-centaury (Cheirolophus crassifolius)

Status: Critically Endangered (CR)

Interesting Fact: The Maltese rock-centaury is the national plant of Malta.

More information:

A perennial plant with smooth, fleshy leaves and attractive purple flowers, the Maltese rock-centaury is found on Malta and the nearby islands of Gozo and Fungus Rock. It grows only in full sun on coastal limestone cliffs and on loose rock debris on slopes. This long-lived plant flowers between May and July, producing a single flower head on each flowering stalk. The flower heads of the Maltese rock-centaury are made up of many small, individual, tubular flowers and are surrounded by a whorl of specialised leaves, or ‘bracts’, with the whole structure resembling a single flower. The seeds of the Maltese rock-centaury are dispersed by the wind.

The Maltese rock-centaury has a very restricted range, being found in a total area of less than 100 square kilometres. Its population is fragmented and is estimated at just a few thousand individuals. The main threats to this plant include nearby quarrying activities, which can cause the fragile cliffs it grows on to collapse, and human disturbance in more accessible areas. Invasive plants also pose a risk, while an unidentified moth larva has been seen attacking this species’ developing fruits. The Maltese rock-centaury is listed on the EC Habitats Directive as a priority species, giving it legal protection, and some of the cliffs it grows on are also protected. This plant has also been cultivated, providing potential stock for future reintroductions. The Maltese rock-centaury’s habitat requires careful management and protection, and better control of quarrying and of invasive plants is also needed.

 

Find out more about the Maltese rock-centaury and other threatened Mediterranean plants at IUCN – The Top 50 Mediterranean Island Plants: Wild plants on the brink of extinction, and what is needed to save them.

See more images of the Maltese rock-centaury on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author

Oct 5
Photo of barndoor skate

Barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis)

Species: Barndoor skate (Dipturus laevis)

Status: Endangered (EN)

Interesting Fact: Adult male barndoor skates have widely spaced teeth with sharply pointed cusps, but females have close-set teeth with rounded cusps.

More information:

The largest skate in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, the barndoor skate can grow up to about 1.5 metres in length. Like other skates, this species has a flattened body which is fused to the expanded pectoral fins to form a broad disc. Its snout is pointed and its tail bears three rows of spines as well as two small dorsal fins. The barndoor skate grows slowly, taking at least 6 to 7 years to reach maturity, and can potentially live for up to 18 years. Its diet consists mainly of bottom-dwelling prey such as fish, squid, crustaceans, bivalves and worms. The eggs of the barndoor skate are laid in smooth, rectangular capsules and hatch after about 11 to 16 months.

Although not specifically targeted by fisheries, the barndoor skate has often been taken as accidental bycatch, and has been part of a group of several skates fished in U.S. waters which are not recorded by species. The flesh of this and other skates has been used as lobster bait, fish meal, pet food and seafood. The slow growth, late maturity and low reproductive rate of this species make it vulnerable to overfishing, and its population has undergone a dramatic decline. Possession of the barndoor skate in U.S. waters is now banned, and ‘no-take’ zones in areas such as Georges Bank have decreased mortality of this species and increased the number of juveniles being produced. A reduction in fishing effort is thought to have allowed the barndoor skate population to start recovering, but if fishing was to increase again the skate would be likely to decline once more.

 

Find out more about the barndoor skate at the Ichthyology Department of the Florida Museum of Natural History.

You can also find out more about the conservation of skates, rays and sharks at:

See more images of the barndoor skate on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author

Oct 1

Defending the United Kingdom against invasive, non-native species costs as much as £1.7 billion each year, according to a report by the BBC Countryfile programme.

Photo of a captive American mink on riverbank

The American mink has contributed to a rapid decline in the native water vole in the UK

Threat to native wildlife

The programme highlights the threats that so-called ‘alien’ species are posing to the UK’s native animals and plants, and the high cost of tackling the problem.

Invasive, non-native species are those which have been introduced by humans to areas outside of their natural range and, in the absence of natural predators and parasites, increase and spread to the detriment of native species and human interests. Worldwide, invasive species are considered to be the largest cause of biodiversity loss after humans.

Photo of common carp being fed on by an invasive species, the American signal crayfish

The signal crayfish is a voracious predator and has a negative impact on native crayfish species in Europe

Alien invaders

An example of a problematic invasive species in the UK is the zebra mussel, which arrived in the UK around ten years ago on the hulls of ships from Europe. This species reproduces so rapidly that it smothers native mussels and can block water systems. At Rutland Water in Leicestershire, England, the local water company has to spend around half a million pounds a year dealing with the species, and has installed filters to the reservoir to prevent the zebra mussels from spreading through and choking their water pipes.

Other well-known invasive species in the UK include the American mink, implicated in the decline of the water vole, and the grey squirrel, which is held largely responsible for the decline in native red squirrels.

Photo of grey squirrel collecting leaves in mouth

Introduced to the UK from North America, the grey squirrel has caused a decline in native red squirrels

Foreign plants are also causing major problems. Japanese knotweed alone is estimated to cost the UK economy £165 million each year to eradicate, and mortgages are being turned down due to the damage this species can do to properties. Of the £1.7 billion spent each year on dealing with invasive species in the UK, around £3 million goes towards clearing non-native weeds which can block canals, rivers and ponds.

Threats to health

As well as threatening native species and having an economic impact, invasive animals and plants can also pose risks to human health. For example, the sap of giant hogweed can cause painful blisters, while the hairy caterpillars of oak processionary moths can trigger allergic reactions.

Photo of bluebells in oak wood

Native UK bluebells are threatened by hybridisation with introduced Spanish bluebells

According to BBC Countryfile’s investigations reporter, Tom Heap, “From the grey squirrel, American crayfish, mink driving water voles from our river banks and the small but scarily named ‘killer shrimp’, a whole host of animals and plants are playing their part in colonising our countryside. Luckily, of the 2,000 non-native species living among us, only a few hundred are actually harmful.”

 

Read more about this story at The Telegraph – Defending UK from foreign species costs £26 per person.

Find out more about invasive species in the UK at the GB Non-Native Species Secretariat (NNSS).

View photos and videos of species from the United Kingdom on ARKive.

Liz Shaw, ARKive Text Author

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